Akzo Nobel N.V., trading as AkzoNobel, is a Dutchmultinational, active in the fields of decorative paints, performance coatings and specialty chemicals. Headquartered in Amsterdam, the company has activities in more than 80 countries, and employs approximately 50,000 people. Sales in 2013 were EUR 14.6 billion. Following the acquisition of ICI, the company has restructured in 2 January 2008, and rebranded itself in 25 April of the same year.
AkzoNobel consists of 11 business units, with business responsibility and autonomy. For managerial purpose these cooperate in three groups, which are supported by one managerial board.
Currently, a seven member-strong Executive Committee (ExCo) was established, which is composed of two members of the Board of Management (BoM) and five leaders with functional expertise, allowing both the functions and the business areas to be represented at the highest levels in the company.
The ExCo includes Chairman and CEO Ton Büchner, CFO Maëlys Castella, Marten Booisma (responsible for Human Resources), Sven Dumoulin (General Counsel), Werner Fuhrmann (responsible for Specialty Chemicals), Ruud Joosten (responsible for Decorative Paints) and Conrad Keijzer (responsible for Performance Coatings). The board holds office in Amsterdam. Prior to August 2007, the Executive Committee was headquartered in Arnhem.
Due to high revenues from the sales of its pharmaceutical business, AkzoNobel was the world's most profitable company in 2008.
This part of the business is mostly geographically organized:
AkzoNobel is a leading coatings company whose key products include automotive coatings, specialized equipment for the car repair and transportation market and marine coatings. The coatings groups consist of the following business units:
The chemicals group now consists of four business units.
Functional Chemicals (FC)
Industrial Chemicals (IC), before 1 January 2009 known as Base Chemicals (BC)
Pulp and Performance Chemicals, under brand name Eka (PPC)
Surface Chemistry (SC)
The divestment of the former business unit of Chemicals Pakistan was completed in Q4 2012.
As chemicals producer, AkzoNobel is a world leading salt specialist, chloralkali products, and other industrial chemicals. Ultimately, AkzoNobel products are found in everyday items such as paper, ice cream, bakery goods, cosmetics, plastics and glass. Each business unit has an annual turnover of approx EUR 1.000 – 1.900 million.
AkzoNobel has a long history of mergers and divestments. Parts of the current company can be traced back to 17th century companies. The milestone mergers and divestments are the formation of AKZO in 1969, the merger with Nobel Industries in 1994 forming Akzo Nobel, and the divestment of its pharmaceutical business and the merger with ICI in 2007/2008 resulting in current day AkzoNobel.
1918 Nederlandse Zoutindustrie (KNZ, NeZo), salt producer in Boekelo
1962 merger of Koninklijke Nederlandse Zoutindustrie and Ketjen to Koninklijke Zout Ketjen. Sikkens joints the merger
1967 merger Koninklijke Zout Ketjen and Koninklijke Zwanenberg Organon to Koninklijke Zout Organon (KZO)
1899 Vereinigte Glanßstoff Fabriken, fiber producer in Oberbruch, Heinsberg Germany
1911 Eerste Nederlandse Kunstzijdefabriek Arnhem, rayon (artificial silk) company founded by Jacques Coenraad Hartogs in Arnhem. Later renamed Nederlandse Kunstzijdefabriek (Enka)
1928 De Internationale Spinpot Exploitatie Maatschappij (ISEM) manufacturer of spinning devices.
Enka's rayon spinning machines continually breakdown. Its director, Jacques Coenraad Hartogs, turns to Netherlands electrical pioneer and friend Rento Hofstede Crull for a solution. To manufacture the spinning pot, one of Hofstede Crull's companies, De Vijf and Jacques Coenraad Hartogs Nederlandse Kunstzijdefabriek form a joint venture: ISEM. The profit of this joint venture allowed the Nederlandse Kunstzijdefabriek to establish subsidiaries in the United States, the American Enka Company, for example, as a means of also circumventing trade protectionism.
1929 merger of Vereinigte Glanszstoff Fabriken with Nederlandse Kunstzijdefabriek, forming Algemene Kunstzijde Unie (AKU)
1938 integration of ISEM, after Hofstede Crull's death, with the AKU
1863 Nitroglycerin, stearin candles factory is founded by Alfred Nobel in Stockholm.
1965 Nitroglycerin becomes Nitro Nobel.
1978 KemaNord acquires Swedish civil explosives chemical group Nitro Nobel and changes its name to KemaNobel.
The specialty chemicals division KemaNord Specialty Chemicals changes its name to KenoGard.
At that time KenoGard produces organic specialty chemicals for plant and wood protection, disinfection and hygiene, paper production, plastics production, oil production, road construction, fertilizer production and mineral purification.
1979 Casco began cooperation with Norwegian adhesives and explosives group Dyno Industries regarding particleboard resin.
1981 acquires Swedish electronics group Pharos from AGA.
1982 acquires Swedish paints group Nordsjö in Malmö.
1983 combines the food systems groups of KenoGard and Kema Nobel to form Probel.
Probel produces specialty chemicals and systems for agriculture, food and technical industries.
Probel is in turn divided into two areas, Kenogard, for plant and wood protection, and Surfactants, for initiators, detergents, anti-caking and ScanRoad.
1984 Casco formed subsidiary in Singapore, which later opens offices in Malaysia (1989), Thailand (1990), Indonesia (1991), the Philippines (1991), the People's Republic of China (1993), Hong Kong (1994), and Vietnam (1994).
1984 Bofors acquires KemaNobel.
Nobel Industries 1984-1993
Both Bofors and KemaNobel have historic ties to Alfred Nobel, the great 19th century Swedish inventor who was the first to discover a way to detonate the flammable liquid nitroglycerin.
1984 Bofors acquires the majority shareholding in KemaNobel
1985 Bofors integrates the entire KemaNobel group and changes its name to Nobel Industries.
Probel becomes Nobel Biotech within KemaNobel Specialty Chemicals.
KenoGard Specialty Chemicals became KeNobel.
1986 divests business civil explosives, Nitro Nobel.
1986 acquires Swedish paper and pulp group Eka AB, which becomes a business area, Eka Nobel.
As a result Eka becomes a major sodium chlorate producer and expanded its operations to North America.
1988 acquires Berol Kemi, Swedish surface chemistry group, from Procordia
and merges it with KeNobel to form a new business area, Berol Nobel.
1988 merge with the two Swedish holding companies Investment AB Asken and Investment AB D. Carnegie.
1990 Eka Nobel acquires Alby Klorat and Stora Kemi from Swedish forest group Stora Kopparberg, Albright and Wilson's paper chemicals division, starts joint venture in India viz. Arjun Chemicals and makes heavy investments in new plants. Eka runs production in 14 countries around the world. Lignox, a patented, hydrogen peroxide bleaching process is introduced.
1991 Eka's j.v in India Arjun Chemicals started the production with fortified rosin soaps intended for the application paper industry.
1991 Eka Nobel's starts hydrogen peroxide production in Venezuela.
1987 acquires the majority shareholding in Sadolin & Holmblad, a Danish paints and adhesives group, from ATP, Hafnia, Norsk Hydro, and the Foss and Sadolin families.
Together with Casco and Nordsjo forms the business area, Casco Nobel.
1988 Casco Nobel acquires Parteks adhesives and joint compound operations in Finland and Raison Tehtaats adhesives operations in Finland, and the adhesives company Arkol in Italy.
1989 acquires Swedish inks group G-man from Swedish forest group Stora Kopparberg and merges it with Sadolin Printing Inks to Casco Nobel Inks, later Akzo Nobel Inks.
1990 acquires Crown Berger, English paints group, which became part of Casco Nobel.
1991 Casco Nobel begins cooperation with Martinswerk GmbH regarding production of Lacquer additive Pergopak at Stockvik.
Other business areas
1990 Pharos acquires the American electronics group Spectra-Physics, and change name to Spectra-Physics.
1991 Nobel Industries and Sadolin & Holmblad sells
Kemisk Værk Køge herbicides activities, KVK Agro Chemicals, to Sandoz,
the chemical-technical activities, KVK Chemical-Technical, to Castrol,
the only Nordic producer of color and textile pigments Kemisk Værk Køge of Denmark to Sun Chemical of USA, part of DaiNippon Inks Japan.
1991 forms a 50/50% joint venture together with FFV, named Swedish Ordnance, Bofors's electronics activities are gathered in NobelTech.
1992 sells Nobel Consumer Goods business area - mainly Barnängen Tekniska Fabrik, Liljeholms, Sterisol, and Vademecum - to the German group Henkel.
1992 sells its 50% shareholding in Swedish Ordnance to joint venture partner FFV's new owner Celsius Industries.
1994 merges with AKZO, forming Akzo Nobel. Nobel Industries contributes to Akzo Nobel with the business areas
paints and adhesives (Casco Nobel),
bleaching and paper chemicals (Eka Nobel),
surface chemistry (Berol Nobel),
Nobelpharma (Nobel Biotech) and Spectra-Physics, becomes listed on Stockholm Stock-Exchange.
The new Akzo Nobel has 20 business entities.
1895 Elektrokemiska Aktiebolaget (abbreviated EKA), Swedish for electrochemical corporation, is founded by Alfred Nobel (founder of the Nobel Prize), C. W. Collander, and Rudolf Liljeqvist (who becomes Managing Director) in Bengtsfors, Sweden.
1949 Sadolin & Holmblad makes a new structure: Danish Paint and Adhesives business, a Danish Printing Inks business as well as an Export business - besides the Kemo-Skandia and KVK chemicals businesses.
1955 Sadolin & Holmblad has subsidiaries in all Nordic countries.
1959 Sadolin & Holmblad divides into a Sadolins National Division and Sadolins International Division and creates Sadolins Research & Development Laboratories for the entire group.
1974 Sadolin & Holmblad makes a new divisional structure: Sadolin Paint Division Nordic, Sadolin Paint Division International, Sadolin Printing Ink Division and KVK Chemical Division.
1975 Sadolin & Holmblad makes Sadolin Adhesives Division after the merge with Lars Foss Kemi, A/S.
1977 Sadolin & Holmblad change the name of Sadolin Adhesives Division to Sadofoss Adhesives Division.
1978 Sadolin & Holmblad change the name of Sadolin Paint Division Nordic to Sadolin Paint Scandinavia Division, while Sadolin Paint Division International takes over the responsibility of Finland and the Soviet Union, leaving Sadolin Paint Division Scandinavia with market responsibility for Denmark, Norway and Sweden.
1978 Sadolin & Holmblad makes a joint management for Sadolin Printing Ink Division and Sadofoss Adhesives Division.
1987 Sadolin & Holmblad change its divisional structure to Division Sadolin Decorative Paints, Division Sadolin Industrial Coatings, Division Sadolin General Coatings, Division Sadolin Printing Inks, Division Sadofoss Adhesives, and Division KVK Chemicals.
1987 Nobel Industries acquires Danish paints group Sadolin & Holmblad, and Sadolin & Holmblad becomes a business group - with its own divisions - within Nobel Industries business area paints Casco Nobel, which until then consisted of the Swedish paints and adhesives group Casco Nobel AB (operating adhesives through AB Casco and paints through AB Nordsjö).
1988 sells the Scandinavian marine paints activities to the Norwegian paint group Jotun A/S.
dissolves Division Sadofoss Adhesives to Casco Nobel AB, the Swedish paints and adhesives group, within Nobel Industries' business area paints and adhesives Casco Nobel, which divides the activities between its Division Casco Nobel Building Adhesives and Division Casco Nobel Industrial Adhesives & Resins.
1989 sells the Scandinavian automotive (line and repair) paints activities to the American paint group PPG.
dissolves Division Sadolin Industrial Coatings and the management responsibility of industrial coatings activities are transferred to Division Casco Nobel Industrial Coatins under business area paints and adhesives Casco Nobel.
dissolves Division Sadolin Printing Inks and the management responsibility of printing inks activities are - together with Nobel Industries' newly acquired Swedish printing inks group, AB G-man, transferred to the newly created Division Casco Nobel Inks under business area paints and adhesives Casco Nobel.
dissolves Division KVK Chemicals and sells Kemisk Vaerk Köge to its management group's newly founded holding company, KVK Holding A/S (whom in 1992 sells the group to the American group SunChemical, itself a subsidiary group of the Japanese group Dainippon Inks & Chemicals.
acquires the agrochemical activities and the chemical-technical (mainly Castrol Oil) activities of Kemisk Vaerk Köge, where after the agrochemical activities are then sold to the German group Schering A/G and a newly founded company, KVK Agro A/S while the chemical-technical activities are sold the English group Burmah-Castrol Oil.
1990 dissolves Division Sadolin General Coatings and the management responsibility of general coatings activities - mainly non-European associated companies with own factories - are transferred to Division Casco Nobel Industrial Coatings within business area Casco Nobel.
left back in Sadolin & Holmblad is the management responsibility of Division Sadolin Decorative Paints - even though many of the subsidiaries and associated companies before Nobel Industries takeover is still owned by Sadolin & Holmblad.
1991 dissolves as Sadolin & Holmblad and becomes Nobel Industries A/S - a "sleeping" sub-holding company of its parent company Nobel Industries.
1949 creates the subsidiary company Sadolin & Holmblad Norge A/S in Oslo, Norway.
1954 creates the subsidiary company Sadolin Oy/AB in Helsinki, Finland, and the associated company DYO A.S. in Izmir, Turkey (opens a decorative coatings factory and marine coatings factories).
1958 creates the subsidiary company Sadolin France S.A. in Paris, France, and the associated company Sadolin ve Yasarin A.S. in Izmir, Turkey (opens an industrial resins factory).
1959 creates the subsidiary company Sadolin Paints (E.A.) Ltd. in Nairobi, Kenya.
1960 buys a majority shareholding in Farve- og Lakfabrikken Svend Overgaard, A/S in Aalborg, Denmark.
1962 Sadolin Paints (E.A.) Ltd. opens a foreign branch in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania.
1962 creates the wholly owned subsidiary companies Sadolin Bilfärg, A/B in Stockholm, Sweden.
1962 buys minority shareholdings in Merol GmbH. & K.G. in Hamburg, West Germany, and Semco S.r.l. in Milan, Italia.
1962 buys the activities of O.F. Asp Lak- & Fabrik, A/S in Copenhagen, Denmark, which is incorporated into Sadolin & Holmblad.
1962 converts the minority owned associated company Sadolin ve Yasarin A.S. to DYO ve Sadolin A.S. in Izmir, Turkey (opens an automotive refinishes factory, a metal and plast industrial coatings factory and a wood finishes factory).
1964 Sadolin Paints (E.A.) Ltd. opens a foreign branch in Kampala, Uganda.
1965 Tanzanian branch becomes a wholly owned subsidiary company, Sadolin Paints (Tanzania) Ltd. in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania.
1966 creates the majority owned subsidiary company Arrigoni-Sadolin S.p.A. in Milan, Italia, while Semco S.r.l. is dissolved.
1967 creates the wholly owned subsidiary company Sadolin GmbH. in Geesthacht, West Germany, while Merol GmbH. & K.G. is dissolved.
1967 Ugandan branch becomes a wholly owned subsidiary company, Sadolin Paints (Uganda) Ltd. in Kampala, Uganda.
1968 creates the majority owned subsidiary company Sadolin Paints (Ethiopia) S.P. in Addis Abba, Ethiopia.
1968 creates the wholly owned subsidiary companies Sadolin (U.K.) Ltd. in Saffron Walden, England (in 1981 moves to Huntingdon); and Division Technique du Bâtiment Sadolin S.A.R.L. in Paris, which both are marketing companies.
1970 creates the associated company P.T. Danapaints Indonesia in Jakarta, Indonesia.
1970 change Kemo-Skandia, A/S in Copenhagen, Denmark from a chemical factory to a paint marketing company - operating together with Farve- & Lakfabrikken Svend Overgaard A/S in Aalborg, Denmark.
1972 creates the associated company Sadolin Paints (Cyprus) Ltd. in Nicosia, Cyprus.
1973 sells the entire wholly owned shareholding in Sadolin France S.A. in Paris, France, and the company continues with a licensing agreement (it is the first subsidiary to be divested).
1975 merges the subsidiary Kemo-Skandia, A/S in Copenhagen, Denmark, into the subsidiary Farve- og Lakfabrikken Svend Overgaard, A/S in Aalborg, Denmark.
1975 loses the entire majority shareholding in Sadolin Paints (Ethiopia) S.P. in Addis Abba, Ethiopia, which is nationalized (it is the first subsidiary to be nationalized).
1976 merges with the paint factory Danlac A/S in Copenhagen, Denmark, which is incorporated into Sadolin & Holmblad.
1976 creates the associated company Sadolin Paints (Oman) Ltd. in Muscat, Oman.
1977 buys a minority shareholding in Pars Sadolin Chemicals Ltd. in Tehran, Iran, which has own production.
1977 creates the marketing subsidiary company Sadolin Produkten B.V. in Rotterdam, the Netherlands - serving Benelux countries.
1978 creates the marketing subsidiary company Sadolin A/G in Zürich, Switzerland - serving Austria and Switzerland.
1980 sells the entire minority shareholding in Sadolin Paints (Oman) Ltd. in Muscat, Oman, and the company continues with a licensing agreement (it is the first associated to be divested).
1981 buys a minority shareholding in the associated company Chemcraft Sadolin Inc. in Port Hope, Ontario, Canada, which has own production.
1982 buys the activities of Mercandia Sie's Farve- & Lakfabrik, A/S in Copenhagen, Denmark, which is incorporated into Sadolin & Holmblad.
1982 sells the entire wholly owned shareholdings in the subsidiaries Sadolin Paints (Tanzania) Ltd. in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania, and Sadolin Paints (Uganda) Ltd. in Kampala, Uganda, and the companies continues with licensing agreements.
1983 creates the subsidiary companySadolin of America, Inc. in Greensboro, North Carolina, USA, and this company creates at the same time a subsidiary company,Sadolin Technology, Inc. in Winston-Salem, North Carolina, USA.
1984 Sadolin of America buys a majority shareholding in Paint Products Company, Inc., which becomes Sadolin Paint Products, Inc. in Walkertown, North Carolina, US.
1984 sells the entire minority shareholding in Pars Sadolin Chemicals Ltd. in Tehran, Iran, and the company continues with a licensing agreement.
Sadolin Printing Inks
1946 creates the majority owned subsidiary company Sadolin Färgfabrik, AB in Stockholm, Sweden.
1955 creates the majority owned subsidiary company Sadolin Painovarit Oy in Helsinki, Finland.
1960 creates the majority owned subsidiary company Sadolin Trykkfarvefabrikk A/S in Oslo, Norway.
1967 the associated company DYO ve Sadolin A.S. Izmir, Turkey (opens an ink factory).
1977 buys the activities of Corona Trykfarver in Copenhagen, Denmark, which is incorporated into Sadolin & Holmblad.
1986 creates the majority owned subsidiary company Sadolin Iberica S.A. in Barcelona, Spain.
1945 Sadolin & Holmblad makes a consumer and industrial adhesives business.
1946 Sadolin & Holmblad gets the Danish 3M agency for adhesives products 3M.
1960 sells consumer and industrial adhesives business and the Danish 3M agency to Lars Foss, who founds Lars Foss Kemi (the 3M agency is in 1963 sold to 3M).
1975 Sadolin & Holmblad merge with Lars Foss Kemi, A/S in Fredensborg, Denmark, (the merge also includes "Lars Foss Kemi A/S" in Sandvika, Norway, "Lars Foss Kjemi AB" in Helsingborg, Sweden, and "Espe-Foss Oy/AB" in Helsinki, Finland).
1976 creates the minority owned company Sadofoss S.A. in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire.
1977 Sadofoss A/S in Fredensborg, Denmark, "Sadofoss A/S" in Sandvika, Norway, "Sadofoss AB" in Helsingborg, Sweden, and "Sadofoss Oy/AB" in Helsinki, Finland, new names for the adhesives companies.
KVK Pigments and Chemicals
1934 founding the Danish color pigments company Kemisk Værk Køge (also called Kemisk Vaerk Koege or Chemical Works Koege) and for short KVK.
1946 becomes a parent company, when Kemisk Værk Køge is transferred to a new subsidiary company and becomes Kemisk Værk Køge, A/S.
1946 Kemisk Værk Køge, A/S diversify its business to also include textile pigments.
1947 Kemisk Værk Køge, A/S diversify its business to also include agriculture chemicals (mainly herbicides).
1958 sells 50% of its shareholding in Kemisk Værk Køge, A/S to the American pigment group Inmont.
1971 Sadolin & Holmblad buys back the 50% shareholding in Kemisk Værk Køge, A/S from Inmont.
1948 co-founds a chemical factory in Copenhagen, Denmark, Kemo-Skandia, A/S.
1959 takes full control over Kemo-Skandia, A/S.
1970 transfer Kemo-Skandia, A/S to the paint business, where it becomes a paint factory.
Berol Kemi 1937–1988
1937 Swedish producer of coatings for fishing lines Berol is founded by fishing enthusiast Bernström and his friend Olson, a chemist, to make coatings to reinforce cotton fishing lines in Södertälje, and within a few years, Berol, whose name is derived from the first letters of the founders' last names, is established as a manufacturer of waterproofing agents for shoes, leather jackets and sheepskin.
1943 Berol, now with six employees, extended its product range to include products to protect food from being destroyed by wet conditions for the defense industry.
1945 Berol moves to Mölndal, and begins producing non-ionic, surface active products for washing powder as well as adhesives and paint improvers.
1960 MoDo builds a petrochemical ethylene plant in the ice-free, deep water port of Stenungsund, Sweden, in an agreement with Stockholms Superfosfat Fabriks and the U.S. oil company Exxon (Esso). Over the course of the decade, MoDo buys more chemical companies, where of some of them gets integrated within Berol.
1971 MoDo consolidates its Swedish chemicals companies into a new company called MoDoKemi, headquartered in Stenungsund, the Berol name disappears as a registered company.
1973 Statsföretag buys MoDoKemi. Statsföretag, a Swedish state's private holding company, (later called Procordia), changes the name to Berol Kemi.
1974 Berol Kemi buys from MoDo the Swedish production units of cellulose derivatives at Domsjö, near Örnsköldsvik.
1979 Berol Kemi made major investment made in modernizing and expanding cellulose derivatives plant in Domsjö.
1980 Berol Kemi participates in founding of Oleochemicals Sdn. Bhd. in Malaysia.
1988 Bofors acquires Berol Kemi.
Crown Berger 1770–1990 (entered Nobel Industries, 1990)
1788 John Hall & Sons founded.
Smith & Walton is founded.
1818 Richard Hilton
1844 Potter & Co. (Charles Potter and Harold Potter) acquired xx from Richard Hilton
1877 The wallpaper company Lincrusta is founded by Frederick Walton.
1887 The wallpaper company Anaglypta in Lancaster is founded by Thomas J Palmer and the Storey Bros.
1899 The Wallpaper Manufacturer’s Company (WPM) is founded.
1915 The Walpamur Company is created by as the paint company of The Wallpaper Manufacturer’s Company (WPM).
1915 The Walpamur Company acquires Kinder & Co.
1929 The Walpamur Company acquires Arthur Sanderson & Sons.
1931 Anaglypta and Lincrusta merged under the name of Relief Decorations, and at the same time became part of The Wallpaper Manufacturer’s Company (WPM).
1963 The Walpamur Company acquires Smith & Walton.
Crown Berger Industrial Coatings and RCL becomes part of Casco Nobel Industrial Coatings Division,
Crown Inks becomes part of Casco Nobel Inks Division.
Sadolin Nobel UK continues as part of Sadolin Nobel Decorative Paints Division.
1991 Nobel Industries acquires MacPherson Paints is acquired from Kemira and becomes part of Crown Nobel Decorative Paints Division.
1995 Akzo Decorative Coatings of Akzo Coatings, Crown Nobel Decorative Paints Division of Crown Berger Ltd. and Sadolin Nobel UK Ltd. makes up the new Akzo Nobel Decorative Coatings Ltd.
2001 Crown Inks is sold, in line with Akzo Nobel's exit from the ink industry (now part of Flint Group)
2001 Relief Decorations, wallpaper manufacturer with the brands Anaglypta and Lincrusta is sold to Imperial Home Décor.
2003 Imperial Home Décor is taken over by Crown Wilman Vymura Ltd.
Akzo Nobel 1994–2007/2008
1994 merger of AKZO and Nobel Industries, forming Akzo Nobel
divests fine and pharma chemicals business area Nobel Chemicals,
divests biotech business area Nobel Biotech
divests electronic business area Spectra-Physics.
1995 divests PET resins business to Wellman, Inc..
1998 Akzo Nobel acquires Courtaulds, a chemical company with leading positions in industrial coatings and in man-made fibers.
EU forces sale of Aeronautical films and sealants businesses to allow completion.
November 1998 , Akzo Nobel divests Courtaulds industrial coatings
Industrial coatings produces plastic packaging, laminate, aluminium tubes, architectural coatings and in USA, packaging coatings, plastic tubes, performance film and aerospace coatings and sealants businesses.
September 1998 forms a new Fibres Group by mergering Akzo Nobel Fibres and Courtauld Fibres under the name Acordis Courtaulds Fibres had just commercialized Tencel, a solvent spun cellulose made from wood, based on a process developed initially in Akzo NA.
January 1999 makes Acordis a stand-alone group within Akzo Nobel by dissolving the Fibres Group.
December 2012, AkzoNobel agrees to sell its North American Architectural Coatings business to PPG Industries
Expancel is a unit within AkzoNobel. Expancel produces expandable microspheres under the tradename "Expancel Microspheres". Expancel has its head office in Sundsvall, Sweden. Production, R&D, sales and marketing is located in Sundsvall. Expancel has sales offices in Germany, the Netherlands, Poland, Russia, Italy, US, Brazil and China. The number of employees is about 200.
^Jaap Tuik. Een bijzonder energiek ondernemer-Rento Wolter Hendrik Hofstede Crull (1863-1938): pioneer van de elektriciteits voorziening in Nederland Zutphen, The Netherlands: Historischcentrumoverijssel & Walburg Pers, 2009. pp.: 137-138 ISBN 978.90.5730.640.2; also http://www.enka-ede.com/IMSE.htm