Adrenochrome

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Adrenochrome
Identifiers
CAS number54-06-8 N
PubChem5898
ChemSpider5687 YesY
Jmol-3D imagesImage 1
Properties
Molecular formulaC9H9NO3
Molar mass179.17 g mol−1
Density3.264 g/cm³
Boiling point

(decomposes, 115-120 °C)

 N (verify) (what is: YesY/N?)
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Infobox references
 
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Adrenochrome
Identifiers
CAS number54-06-8 N
PubChem5898
ChemSpider5687 YesY
Jmol-3D imagesImage 1
Properties
Molecular formulaC9H9NO3
Molar mass179.17 g mol−1
Density3.264 g/cm³
Boiling point

(decomposes, 115-120 °C)

 N (verify) (what is: YesY/N?)
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Infobox references

Adrenochrome (catecholamine o-quinone),[1] chemical formula C9H9NO3, is a compound produced by the oxidation of adrenaline (epinephrine). The derivative carbazochrome is a hemostatic medication. It is unrelated to chrome (chromium).

Chemistry[edit]

In vivo, adrenochrome is synthesized by the oxidation of epinephrine. In vitro, silver oxide (Ag2O) is used as an oxidizing agent.[2] Its presence is detected in solution by a pink color. The color turns brown upon polymerization.

Effect on the brain[edit]

Several small-scale studies (involving 15 or fewer test subjects) were done in the 50s and 60s, reporting that adrenochrome triggered psychotic reactions like thought disorder, derealization, and euphoria.[3] It has never been scientifically accepted, however, that adrenochrome has psychedelic properties.[4] Nevertheless, especially researchers Abram Hoffer and Humphry Osmond claimed that adrenochrome is a neurotoxic, psychotomimetic substance and may play a role in schizophrenia and other mental illnesses.[5] In what they called the "adrenochrome hypothesis",[6] they speculated that megadoses of vitamin C and niacin could cure schizophrenia by reducing brain adrenochrome.[7][8]

Law[edit]

Adrenochrome is uncontrolled in the United States. Thus, it is generally legal to buy, possess, and distribute (sell, trade or give). If sold as a supplement, sales must conform to U.S. supplement laws. If sold for consumption as a food or drug, sales are regulated by the FDA.[9]

In popular culture[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ COMMENTARY, John Smythies; Neurochemistry Section, Brain and Perception Laboratory, Center for Human Information Processing, UCSD Association for the Scientific Study of Consciousness, Electronic Seminars, 1999
  2. ^ MacCarthy, Chim, Ind. Paris 55,435(1946)
  3. ^ John Smythies (2002). "The adrenochrome hypothesis of schizophrenia revisited". Neurotoxicity Research 4 (2): 147–150. 
  4. ^ "The controversy that these reports created just sort of died away, and the adrenochrome family has never been accepted as being psychedelic. No one in the scientific community today is looking in and about the area, and at present this is considered as an interesting historical footnote." As seen at: Alexander Shulgin and Ann Shulgin (1991). "#157 (TMA)". PiHKAL - A Chemical Love Story. Transform Press. 
  5. ^ Hoffer, A. Osmond, H., Smithies, J.; Schizophrenia: a new approach. Journal of Mental Science #100 (January, 1954)
  6. ^ Hoffer, A (Q1 1990). "The Adrenochrome Hypothesis and Psychiatry". Retrieved 2011-07-25. 
  7. ^ Hoffer, A. and Osmond, H. The Hallucinogens (Academic Press, 1967).
  8. ^ Hoffer, A., Osmond, H., & Smythies, J. (1994). An Evolutionary Defense Against Severe Stress. Schizophrenia: A New Approach (pp. 205-221). Victoria, Canada: Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine
  9. ^ Erowid. "Adrenochrome Law". Retrieved 2013-01-14. 
  10. ^ Thompson, Hunter S. (1971). Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas. Random House. ISBN 0-679-78589-2. 

External links[edit]