Adductor muscles of the hip

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Adductor muscles of the hip
Anterior Hip Muscles 2.PNG
The adductors and nearby muscles
Gray344.png
Structures surrounding right hip-joint. (Adductor muscles visible at upper right.)
Gray'ssubject #128 473
OriginPubis
Insertion   Femur and tibia
Artery
NerveObturator nerve
ActionsAdduction of hip
 
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Adductor muscles of the hip
Anterior Hip Muscles 2.PNG
The adductors and nearby muscles
Gray344.png
Structures surrounding right hip-joint. (Adductor muscles visible at upper right.)
Gray'ssubject #128 473
OriginPubis
Insertion   Femur and tibia
Artery
NerveObturator nerve
ActionsAdduction of hip

In human anatomy, the adductor muscles of the hip are a group of muscles of the thigh.

Muscles[edit]

The adductor group is made up of:

Origin and insertion[edit]

The adductors originate on the pubis and ischium bones and insert mainly on the medial posterior surface of the femur.

MuscleOriginInsertioninnervation[2]
Adductor brevisInferior pubic ramusMedial ridge of linea asperaObturator nerve (L2-L4)
Adductor longusFront side of the pubic bone under the pubic tubercleMedial ridge of linea asperaObturator nerve (L2-L4)
Adductor magnusInferior pubic ramus and tuberosity of the ischiumMedial ridge of linea aspera and the adductor tubercleObturator nerve and tibial nerve (L2-L5)
Adductor minimusInferior pubic ramusMedial ridge of linea asperaObturator nerve (L2)[3]
PectineusPectineal line (pubis)Pectineal lineFemoral nerve and sometimes the obturator nerve (L2-L4)
GracilisInferior pubic ramusPes anserinus on the tibiaObturator nerve (L2-L3)
Obturator externusLateral surface of obturator membrane and the ischiopubic ramusTrochanteric fossaPosterior branch of obturator nerve (L5-S2)

Innervation[edit]

The pectineus is the only adductor muscle that is innervated by the femoral nerve. The other adductor muscles are innervated by the obturator nerve[1] with the exception of a small part of the adductor magnus which is innervated by the tibial nerve.[4]

Variation[edit]

In 33% of people a supernumerary muscle is found between the adductor brevis and adductor minimus. When present, this muscle originates from the upper part of the inferior ramus of the pubis from where it runs downwards and laterally. In half of cases, it inserts into the anterior surface of the insertion aponeurosis of the adductor minimus. In the remaining cases, it is either inserted into the upper part of the pectineal line or the posterior part of the lesser trochanter. While similar to its neighbouring adductors, it is formed by separation from the superficial layer of the obturator externus, and is thus not ontogentically related to the adductors.[5]

Tenotomy[edit]

So called adductor tenotomy (cutting the origin tendons of the adductor muscles of the thigh) and obturator neurectomy (cutting the anterior branch of the obturator nerve) is sometimes performed on children with cerebral palsy. These children often have a hypertonia of the adductor muscles, making abduction difficult, obstructing normal hip development, and putting them at risk of hip luxation.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Platzer, Werner (2004), " Color Atlas of Human Anatomy, Vol. 1, Locomotor System, Thieme, 5th ed, p 240
  2. ^ Bojsen-Møller, Finn; Simonsen, Erik B.; Tranum-Jensen, Jørgen (2001). Bevægeapparatets anatomi [Anatomy of the Locomotive Apparatus] (in Danish) (12th ed.). pp. 364–367. ISBN 978-87-628-0307-7. 
  3. ^ "Adductor minimus". AnatomyExpert. Retrieved April 30 2013. 
  4. ^ Bojsen-Møller, Finn; Simonsen, Erik B.; Tranum-Jensen, Jørgen (2001). Bevægeapparatets anatomi [Anatomy of the Locomotive Apparatus] (in Danish) (12th ed.). p. 266. ISBN 978-87-628-0307-7. 
  5. ^ Nakamura E, Masumi S, Miura M, Kato S, Miyauchi R. (August 1992). "A supernumerary muscle between the adductors brevis and minimus in humans.". Okajimas Folia Anat Jpn (Okajimas Folia Anat Jpn. 1992 Aug;69(2-3):89-98.) 69 (2-3): 89–98. PMID 1436954.