Pharyngitis ( /færɨnˈdʒaɪtɨs/) comes from the Greek word pharynx φάρυγξ meaning throat and the suffix -itis ίτις meaning inflammation. It is an inflammation of the throat. In most cases it is quite painful, and is the most common cause of a sore throat.
Like many types of inflammation, pharyngitis can be acute – characterized by a rapid onset and typically a relatively short course – or chronic. Pharyngitis can result in very large tonsils which cause trouble swallowing and breathing. Pharyngitis can be accompanied by a cough or fever, for example, if caused by a systemic infection.
Most acute cases are caused by viral infections (40–80%), with the remainder caused by bacterial infections, fungal infections, or irritants such as pollutants or chemical substances. Treatment of viral causes are mainly symptomatic while bacterial or fungal causes may be amenable to antibiotics and anti-fungal respectively.
Pharyngitis is a type of inflammation, most commonly caused by an upper respiratory tract infection. It may be classified as acute or chronic. An acute pharyngitis may be catarrhal, purulent or ulcerative, depending on the virulence of the causative agent and the immune capacity of the affected individual. Chronic pharyngitis is the most common otolaringologic disease and may be catarrhal, hypertrophic or atrophic.
If the inflammation includes tonsillitis, it is called pharyngotonsillitis. Another sub classification is nasopharyngitis (the common cold).
The majority of cases are due to an infectious organism acquired from close contact with an infected individual.
These comprise about 40–80% of all infectious cases and can be a feature of many different types of viral infections.
A number of different bacteria can infect the human throat. The most common is Group A streptococcus, however others include Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae.
- Streptococcal pharyngitis
Streptococcal pharyngitis or strep throat is caused by group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus (GAS). It is the most common bacterial cause of cases of pharyngitis (15–30%). Common symptoms include fever, sore throat, and large lymph nodes. It is a contagious infection, spread by close contact with an infected individual. A definitive diagnosis is made based on the results of a throat culture. Antibiotics are useful to both prevent complications and speed recovery.
- Fusobacterium necrophorum
Fusobacterium necrophorum are normal inhabitants of the oropharyngeal flora. Occasionally however it can create a peritonsillar abscess. In 1 out of 400 untreated cases Lemierre's syndrome occurs.
Diphtheria is a potentially life threatening upper respiratory infection caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae which has been largely eradicated in developed nations since the introduction of childhood vaccination programs, but is still reported in the Third World and increasingly in some areas in Eastern Europe. Antibiotics are effective in the early stages, but recovery is generally slow.
A few other causes are rare, but possibly fatal, and include parapharyngeal space infections: peritonsillar abscess ("quinsy"), submandibular space infection (Ludwig's angina), and epiglottitis.
Some cases of pharyngitis are caused by fungal infection such as Candida albicans causing oral thrush.
Pharyngitis may also be caused by mechanical, chemical or thermal irritation, for example cold air or acid reflux. Some medications may produce pharyngitis such as pramipexole and antipsychotics.
Modified Centor score
|Points||Probability of Strep||Management|
|1 or less||<10%||No antibiotic or culture needed|
|2||11–17%||Antibiotic based on culture or RADT|
|4 or 5||52%||Empiric antibiotics|
It is hard to differentiate a viral and a bacterial cause of a sore throat based on symptoms alone. Thus often a throat swab is done to rule out a bacterial cause.
The modified Centor criteria may be used to determine the management of people with pharyngitis. Based on 5 clinical criteria, it indicates the probability of a streptococcal infection.
One point is given for each of the criteria:
- Absence of a cough
- Swollen and tender cervical lymph nodes
- Temperature >38.0 °C (100.4 °F)
- Tonsillar exudate or swelling
- Age less than 15 (a point is subtracted if age >44)
The McIsaac criteria adds to the Centor:
- Age less than 15: add one point
- Age greater than 45: subtract one point
The Infectious Disease Society of America however recommends against empirical treatment and considers antibiotics only appropriate following positive testing. Testing is not needed in children under three as both group A strep and rheumatic fever are rare, except if they have a sibling with the disease. 
The majority of time treatment is symptomatic. Specific treatments are effective for bacterial, fungal, and herpes simplex infections.
Alternative medicines are promoted and used for the treatment of sore throats. However, they are poorly supported by evidence; UpToDate, an evidence-based peer-reviewed resource, recommends that they not be used to treat pharyngitis.
Acute pharyngitis is the most common cause of a sore throat and sore throat and cough is diagnosed in more than 1.9 million people a year in the United States.
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