From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - View original article

AOL Inc.
Traded asNYSEAOL
Founded1983 as Control Video Corporation
1991 as America Online, Vienna, Virginia (Tysons Corner), U.S.[1]
2006 as AOL
Headquarters770 Broadway
New York City
, U.S.
Area servedWorldwide
Key peopleTim Armstrong
(Chairman and CEO)
ServicesOnline services
RevenueDecrease $2.2 billion (FY 2011)[2]
Operating incomeIncrease $45.8 million (FY 2011)[2]
Net incomeIncrease $13.1 million (FY 2011)[2]
Total assetsDecrease $2.8 billion (FY 2011)[2]
Total equityDecrease $2.17 billion (FY 2011)[2]
Employees5,660 (December 2011)[2]
Jump to: navigation, search
AOL Inc.
Traded asNYSEAOL
Founded1983 as Control Video Corporation
1991 as America Online, Vienna, Virginia (Tysons Corner), U.S.[1]
2006 as AOL
Headquarters770 Broadway
New York City
, U.S.
Area servedWorldwide
Key peopleTim Armstrong
(Chairman and CEO)
ServicesOnline services
RevenueDecrease $2.2 billion (FY 2011)[2]
Operating incomeIncrease $45.8 million (FY 2011)[2]
Net incomeIncrease $13.1 million (FY 2011)[2]
Total assetsDecrease $2.8 billion (FY 2011)[2]
Total equityDecrease $2.17 billion (FY 2011)[2]
Employees5,660 (December 2011)[2]

AOL Inc. (NYSEAOL, previously known as America Online, written as AOL and stylized as "Aol." but commonly pronounced as an initialism) is an American global brand company that develops, grows, and invests in brands and web sites.[3] The Company’s business spans online content, products and services, which it offers to consumers, publishers and advertisers. Founded in 1983 as Control Video Corporation, AOL has franchised its services to companies in several nations around the world or set up international versions of its services.[4] AOL is headquartered at 770 Broadway in New York,[5][6] but has many offices throughout cities in North America, such as Atlanta, Baltimore, Beverly Hills, Birmingham, Boston, Chicago, Denver, Dublin, Dulles, Lancaster, Nashville, Palo Alto, San Francisco, Toronto and Washington, D.C. Its foreign offices include Bangalore, Dreieich, Dublin, London and Tel Aviv. As of October 2012, it serves 2.9 million paid and free domestic (US) subscribers.[7]

AOL is best known for its online software suite, also called AOL, that allowed customers to access the world's largest "walled garden" online community and eventually reach out to the Internet as a whole. At its prime, AOL's membership was over 30 million members worldwide,[8] most of whom accessed the AOL service through the AOL software suite. AOL was ranked fourth (behind the Web, email, and graphic user interfaces) in a 2007 USA TODAY retrospective on the 25 events that shaped the first 25 years of the Internet[9] and was named to the ".com 25" by a panel of Silicon Valley influencers on the occasion of the same anniversary.[10]

In 2000, AOL and Time Warner merged under the name AOL Time Warner. The merger was not fruitful and on May 28, 2009, Time Warner announced that it would spin off AOL into a separate public company. The spinoff occurred on December 9, 2009,[11] ending the eight-year relationship between the two companies.[12]

Since then, AOL has focused on reinventing itself as a brand company under the guidance of CEO Tim Armstrong, creating and acquiring a range of content properties. Major acquisitions include the purchase of technology news blog TechCrunch in September 2010,[13] and on February 7, 2011, the purchase of The Huffington Post.[14] Other AOL brands include Moviefone, Engadget, Patch, Stylelist, MapQuest, Cambio and[15]

In April 2012, AOL took several steps to expand its ability to generate revenue through online video advertising. On April 16, 2012, AOL announced that it would offer gross rating point (GRP) guarantee for online video, guaranteeing audience delivery for online video advertising campaigns bought across its properties.[16] From April 19 through May 2, AOL, Google, Hulu, Microsoft, Vevo and Yahoo cohosted the Digital Content NewFronts (DCNF), a two-week event held to showcase the participating sites’ digital video offerings. The Digital Content NewFronts were conducted before the traditional television upfronts, where television channels present their upcoming programming to advertisers, in hopes of getting marketers to spend more advertising money in the digital space.[17] On April 24, at AOL’s NewFront presentation, the company introduced the AOL On Network, a curated hub for AOL’s video offerings, along with several original video program series.[18]

On April 16, 2012, the Huffington Post won its first Pulitzer Prize, becoming the first online-only daily news website to do so. The prize for National Reporting was awarded to reporter David Wood for his 10-part series, "Beyond the Battlefield," exploring the lives of veterans who were severely injured while serving in Afghanistan and Iraq.[19][20] On April 9, 2012, AOL announced plans to sell and license patents to Microsoft for $1.056 billion. The announcement of the deal caused AOL shares to rise 36 percent on the morning of the announcement.[21] On June 14, 2012, AOL won a proxy fight with activist investor Starboard Value when a majority of shareholders voted to reelect all eight of AOL’s current board members, rather than take on any of the candidates proposed by Starboard Value.[22]


1980s: Foundations

AOL release timeline
1983GameLine for the Atari 2600 video game console
1985Quantum Link for Commodore 64- and 128
1988AppleLink for Apple II and Macintosh
1988PC Link for IBM PC compatibles
1989America Online for Macintosh received as a popular Apple Macintosh BBS
February 1991AOL for DOS launched
January 1993AOL 2.0 for the Apple Macintosh released,
AOL 1.0 for Microsoft Windows 3.x launched
June 1994AOL 1.5 for Microsoft Windows 3.x released
September 1994AOL 2.0 for Microsoft Windows 3.x released
June 1995AOL 2.5 for Microsoft Windows 3.x released
June 1995AOL 3.0 (Win16) for Windows 3.x/Windows 95/Windows NT released
June 1996AOL 3.0 for Windows 95 released
July 1998 / June 1999AOL 4.0 (Casablanca) and Refresh 2 released
September 1999AOL 5.0 (Kilimanjaro) released
June 2000AOL 5.0 for 9x/NT/2K (Niagara) released
October and December 2000AOL 6.0 (K2 – Karakorum) and Refresh released
September 2001AOL 6.0.2 for XP (Steppenwolf) launched
October and December 2001, May and July 2002AOL 7.0 (Taz) and Refresh 1, Refresh 2, and Refresh 2 Plus released
October 2002AOL 8.0 (Spacely) released
April 2003AOL 8.0 Plus (Elroy) launched
August and September 2003AOL 9.0 Optimized (Bunker Hill / Blue Hawaii) and Refresh released
May 2004AOL 9.0 Optimized SE/LE (Thailand / Tahiti) released
November 2004, July 2005AOL 9.0 Security Edition SE/LE (Strauss) and Refresh released
August 2005 to March 2006AOL Suite Beta launched (cancelled)
September 2006, March 2007AOL OpenRide (Streamliner) launched
November 2006, April 2007AOL 9.0 VR and Refresh (Raga) released (AOL 9.0 for Microsoft Windows Vista but also works with Microsoft Windows 98, ME, 2000 and XP)
September 2007AOL Desktop for Mac Beta released
October 31, 2007AOL 9.1 (Tarana) released
December 2007AOL Desktop (a.k.a. AOL 10.0) launched
May 2008AOL Desktop for Mac 10 officially launched
September 2008AOL Desktop 10.1 released
February and November 2009AOL 9.5 and 9.5 Refresh released (Classic)
November 2010AOL Desktop 9.6
December 2011AOL Desktop 9.7

AOL began as a short-lived venture called Control Video Corporation (or CVC), founded by Bill von Meister. Its sole product was an online service called GameLine for the Atari 2600 video game console after von Meister's idea of buying music on demand was rejected by Warner Brothers.[23] Subscribers bought a modem from the company for 49.95 USD and paid a one-time 15 USD setup fee. GameLine permitted subscribers to temporarily download games and keep track of high scores, at a cost of 1 USD per game. The telephone disconnected and the downloaded game would remain in GameLine's Master Module and playable until the user turned off the console or downloaded another game.

The original technical team was composed of Marc Seriff, Tom Ralston, Ken Huntsman, Janet Hunter, Dave Brown, Steve Trus, Ray Heinrich, Craig Dykstra, and Doug Coward.

In January 1983, Steve Case was hired as a marketing consultant for Control Video on the recommendation of his brother, investment banker Dan Case. In May 1983, Jim Kimsey became a manufacturing consultant for Control Video, which was near bankruptcy. Kimsey was brought in by his West Point friend Frank Caufield, an investor in the company.[23] Von Meister quietly left the company in early 1985. Control Video was reorganized as Quantum Computer Services, Inc. on May 24, 1985, with Kimsey as Chief Executive Officer and Marc Seriff as Chief Technology Officer. Out of 100 employees from Control Video, only 10 remained in the new company.[23] Case himself rose quickly through the ranks; Kimsey promoted him to vice-president of marketing not long after becoming CEO, and later promoted him further to executive vice-president in 1987. Kimsey soon began to groom Case to ascend to the rank of CEO, which he did when Kimsey retired in 1991.

Kimsey changed the company's strategy, and in 1985 launched a dedicated online service for Commodore 64 and 128 computers, originally called Quantum Link ("Q-Link" for short). The Quantum Link software was based on software licensed from PlayNet, Inc, (founded in 1983 by Howard Goldberg and Dave Panzl). In May 1988, Quantum and Apple launched AppleLink Personal Edition for Apple II and Macintosh computers. In August 1988, Quantum launched PC Link, a service for IBM-compatible PCs developed in a joint venture with the Tandy Corporation. After the company parted ways with Apple in October 1989, Quantum changed the service's name to America Online.[24][25]

Steve Case positioned AOL as the online service for people unfamiliar with computers, in particular contrast to CompuServe, which had long served the technical community. The PlayNet system that AOL licensed was the first online service to require use of proprietary software, rather than a standard terminal program; as a result it was able to offer a graphical user interface (GUI) instead of command lines, and was well ahead of the competition in emphasizing communication among members as a feature.[citation needed]

From the beginning, AOL included online games in its mix of products; many classic and casual games were included in the original PlayNet software system. In the early years of AOL the company introduced many innovative online interactive titles and games, including:

1990s: A new internet age

In February 1991 AOL for DOS was launched using a GeoWorks interface followed a year later by AOL for Windows. This coincided with growth in pay-based online services, like Prodigy, CompuServe, and GEnie. 1991 also saw the introduction of an original Dungeons & Dragons title called Neverwinter Nights from Stormfront Studios; it was the first Multiplayer Online Role Playing Game to depict the adventure with graphics instead of text.

During the early 1990s the average subscription lasted for about 25 months and accounted for $350 in total revenue.[26] AOL discontinued Q-Link and PC Link in the fall of 1994. In September 1993, AOL added USENET access to its features.[27] This is commonly referred to as the "Eternal September". AOL quickly surpassed GEnie, and by the mid-1990s, it passed Prodigy (which for several years allowed AOL advertising) and CompuServe.

In particular was the Chat Room concept from PlayNet, as opposed to the previous paradigm of CB-style channels. Chat Rooms allowed a large group of people with similar interests to convene and hold conversations in real time, including:

Between 1990–94,[citation needed] AOL launched services with the National Education Association, the American Federation of Teachers, National Geographic, the Smithsonian Institution, the Library of Congress, Pearson, Scholastic, ASCD, NSBA, NCTE, Discovery Networks, Turner Education Services (CNN Newsroom), National Public Radio, The Princeton Review, Stanley Kaplan, Barron's, Highlights for Kids, the US Department of Education, and many other education providers. AOL's offered the first real-time homework help service (the Teacher Pager—1990; prior to this, AOL provided homework help bulletin boards), the first service by kids, for kids (Kids Only Online, 1991), the first online service for parents (the Parents Information Network, 1991), the first online courses (1988), the first omnibus service for teachers (the Teachers' Information Network, 1990), the first online exhibit (Library of Congress, 1991), the first parental controls, and many other online education firsts.

The first chat room-based text role-playing game, Black Bayou. was introduced by AOL in 1996.

AOL charged its users an hourly fee until October 1996, when the company changed to a flat monthly rate of $19.95. During this time, AOL connections would be flooded with users trying to get on, and many canceled their accounts due to constant busy signals. A commercial featuring Steve Case telling people AOL was working day and night to fix the problem was made. Within three years, AOL's userbase grew to 10 million people. In 1995 AOL was headquartered at 8619 Westwood Center Drive in the Tysons Corner CDP in unincorporated Fairfax County, Virginia,[28][29] near the Town of Vienna.[30]

AOL was quickly running out of room in October 1996 for its network at the Fairfax County campus. In 1996,[citation needed] AOL moved to 22000 AOL Way in Dulles, unincorporated Loudoun County, Virginia.[31] The move to Dulles took place in mid-1996 and provided room for future growth. In a five year landmark agreement with the most popular operating system, AOL was bundled with Windows software.[citation needed]

On March 31, 1997, the short-lived eWorld was purchased by AOL.

2000s: Transition and rebranding

Decline in U.S. subscribers 2Q 2001 – 2Q 2009.[citation needed]

In January 2000, AOL and Time Warner announced plans to merge, forming AOL Time Warner, Inc. The terms of the deal called for AOL shareholders to own 55% of the new, combined company. The deal closed on January 11, 2001. The new company was led by executives from AOL, SBI, and Time Warner. Gerald Levin, who had served as CEO of Time Warner, was CEO of the new company. Steve Case served as Chairman, J. Michael Kelly (from AOL) was the Chief Financial Officer, Robert W. Pittman (from AOL) and Dick Parsons (from Time Warner) served as Co-Chief Operating Officers.[citation needed]

In 2004, along with the launch of AOL 9.0 Optimized, AOL also made available the option of personalized greetings which would enable the user to hear his or her name while accessing basic functions and mail alerts, or while logging in or out.

In 2005, AOL broadcast the Live 8 concert live over the Internet, and thousands of users downloaded clips of the concert over the following months.[citation needed] In late 2005, AOL released AOL Safety & Security Center,[citation needed] a bundle of McAfee anti-virus, CA anti-spyware, and proprietary firewall and phishing protection software. News reports in late 2005 identified companies such as Yahoo!, Microsoft, and Google as candidates for turning AOL into a joint venture;[32] those plans were apparently abandoned when it was revealed on December 20, 2005 that Google would purchase a 5% share of AOL for $1 billion.

On April 3, 2006, AOL announced that it was retiring the full name "America Online"; the official name of the service became "AOL", and the full name of the TimeWarner subdivision became "AOL, LLC".[33]

On June 8, 2006,[34] AOL offered a new program called AOL Active Security Monitor, a diagnostic tool that checked the local PC's security status, and recommended additional security software from AOL or The program rated the computer on a variety of different areas of security and general computer health. Two months later,[35] AOL released AOL Active Virus Shield. This software was developed by Kaspersky Lab. Active Virus Shield software was free and did not require an AOL account, only an internet email address. The ISP side of AOL UK was bought by The Carphone Warehouse in October 2006 to take advantage of their 100,000 LLU customers, making The Carphone Warehouse the biggest LLU provider in the UK.[36]

On August 2006, AOL announced that they would give away email accounts and software previously available only to its paying customers provided the customer accessed AOL or through a non-AOL-owned access method (otherwise known as "third party transit", "bring your own access", or "BYOA"). The move was designed to reduce costs associated with the "Walled Garden" business model by reducing usage of AOL-owned access points and shifting members with high-speed internet access from client-based usage to the more lucrative advertising provider,[37] The change from paid to free was also designed to slow the rate of members canceling their accounts and defecting to Microsoft Hotmail, Yahoo!, or other free email providers. The other free services included:[38]

According to AOL CEO Randy Falco, as of December 2007, the conversion rate of accounts from paid access to free access was over 80%.[45] Later in August 2006, AOL informed its American customers that it would be increasing the price of its dial-up access to US$25.90. The increase was part of an effort to migrate the service's remaining dial-up users to broadband, as the increased price was the same price they had been charging for monthly DSL access.[46] However, AOL has since started offering their services for $9.95 a month for unlimited dial-up access.[47]

On September 17, 2007, AOL announced that it was moving one of its corporate headquarters from Dulles, Virginia to New York City[48] and combining its various advertising units into a new subsidiary called Platform A. This action followed several advertising acquisitions, most notably, and highlighted the company's new focus on advertising-driven business models. AOL management stressed that "significant operations" will remain in Dulles, which included the company's access services and modem banks.

In October 2007, AOL announced that it would move one of its other headquarters from Loudoun County, Virginia to New York City; it would continue to operate its Virginia offices.[6] As part of the impending move to New York and the restructuring of responsibilities at the Dulles headquarters complex after the Reston move, AOL CEO Randy Falco announced on October 15, 2007 plans to lay off 2000 employees worldwide by the end of 2007, beginning "immediately".[49] The end result was a near 40% layoff across the board at AOL.

By November 2007, its customer base had been reduced to 10.1 million subscribers,[50] just narrowly ahead of Comcast and AT&T Yahoo!.

On January 3, 2008, AOL announced the closing one of its three Northern Virginia data centers, Reston Technology Center, and sold it to CRG West.[51]

On February 6, 2008, Time Warner CEO Jeff Bewkes announced that Time Warner would split AOL's internet access and advertising businesses into two, with the possibility of later selling the internet access division.[52]

On March 13, 2008, AOL purchased the social networking site Bebo for $850m (£417m).[53] On July 25, 2008 AOL announced it was shedding Xdrive, AOL Pictures, and BlueString to save on costs and focus on its core advertising business.[54] AOL Pictures was terminated on December 31, 2008. On October 31, 2008, AOL Hometown (a web hosting service for the websites of AOL customers) and the AOL Journal blog hosting service were eliminated,[55] after first announcing the impending shutdown on September 30, 2008[56]

2009-Present: AOL as a digital media company

On March 12, 2009, Tim Armstrong, formerly with Google, was named Chairman and CEO of AOL.[57] Shortly thereafter, on May 28, Time Warner announced that it would spin off AOL as an independent company once Google's shares ceased at the end of the fiscal year.[58]

On November 23, 2009, AOL unveiled a sneak preview of a new brand identity which has the a wordmark Aol superimposed onto canvases created by commissioned artists. The new identity, designed by Wolff Olins,[59] was enacted onto all of AOL's services on December 10, 2009, the date AOL traded independently for the first time since the Time Warner merger on the NYSE under the symbol AOL.[60]

On April 6, 2010, AOL announced plans shut down or sell Bebo;[61] on June 16, 2010, the property was sold to Criterion Capital Partners for an undisclosed amount, believed to be around $10 million.[62] In December 2010, AIM eliminated access to AOL chat rooms noting a marked decline of patronage in recent months.[63]

Under Armstrong’s leadership, AOL began taking steps in a new business direction, marked by a series of acquisitions. On June 11, 2009, AOL had already announced the acquisition of Patch Media, a network of community-specific news and information sites that focuses on individual towns and communities.[64] On September 28, 2010, at the San Francisco TechCrunch Disrupt Conference, AOL signed an agreement to acquire TechCrunch to further its overall strategy of providing premier online content.[65][66] On December 12, 2010, AOL acquired, a personal profile/identity platform, 4 days after public launch.[67]

On January 31, 2011, AOL announced the acquisition of European video distribution network, goviral.[68] On February 7, 2011, AOL bought The Huffington Post for $315 million.[69] Shortly after the acquisition was announced, co-founder Arianna Huffington replaced AOL Content Chief David Eun, assuming the role of President and Editor-in-Chief of the AOL Huffington Post Media Group.[70]

On March 10, 2011, AOL announced it would cut around 900 workers in the wake of the Huffington Post deal.[71]

On September 14, 2011, AOL formed a strategic ad selling partnership with two of its largest competitors, Yahoo and Microsoft. According to the new partnership, the three companies would begin selling inventory on each other’s sites. The strategy was designed to help them compete with Google and ad networks.[72]

On March 15, 2012, AOL announced the acquisition of Hipster, a mobile photo sharing app for an undisclosed amount.[73] On April 9, 2012, AOL announced a deal to sell 800 patents to Microsoft for $1.056 billion. The deal includes a "perpetual" license for AOL to use these patents.[74]

In April 2012, AOL took several steps to expand its ability to generate revenue through online video advertising. First, the company announced that it would offer gross rating point (GRP) guarantee for online video, mirroring the TV ratings system and guaranteeing audience delivery for online video advertising campaigns bought across its properties.[75] This announcement came just days before the Digital Content NewFronts (DCNF), a two-week event held by AOL, Google, Hulu, Microsoft, Vevo and Yahoo to showcase the participating sites’ digital video offerings. The Digital Content NewFronts were conducted in advance of the traditional television upfronts in hopes of diverting more advertising money into the digital space.[17] On April 24, 2012 the company launched the AOL On network, a single web site for its video output.[76]

Products and Services

AOL’s products and services are in following areas: Content, Advertising, Local, Membership and AOL Ventures.


AOL’s Huffington Post Media Group (HPMG) is a source of news, opinion, entertainment, community and digital information. The Group is a diverse network of sites including the Huffington Post, Moviefone, Engadget, TechCrunch, Patch and Stylelist, which combine reposting, technology, engagement, and video to reach a global audience on every platform. The Group has over 20,000 bloggers, including politicians, celebrities, academics and policy experts, who contribute on a wide range of topics making news.[77] The Group’s video is collected on its AOL On site, which offers channels in News, Entertainment, Style, Tech, Business, Food, Home, Travel, Health, Autos, Parenting, Relationships, Video Games and Pets.[78]



AOL provides local content, platforms and services covering geographic levels ranging from neighborhoods to major metropolitan areas. This local content includes professional editorial content, user-generated content and business listings. AOL’s local brands include MapQuest, the second-largest online mapping company, operating at 44-percent market share; and Patch, a platform of hyperlocal news and information sites managed by professional local journalists and photographers. Patch is the web's fastest-growing local property, with sites in over 850 communities in 22 states plus Washington, D.C.[80]

AOL Membership

AOL offers a range of integrated products and properties including communication tools, mobile services and subscription packages that drive traffic and user engagement across the AOL network.

AOL Ventures

AOL Ventures is the venture capital arm of AOL, investing in early-stage technology-centric consumer Internet companies.[82]

Corporate Citizenship and Causes

Since spinning off from Time Warner in 2010, AOL has made corporate social responsibility an important part of its mission. In its company values, AOL states, “We are in the business of helping people, period.”[83] For the company’s corporate social responsibility efforts, AOL's CEO Tim Armstrong was included in a July 9, 2012 Adweek article, "The Givers," highlighting individuals who have committed their and their companies' time, money and resources to a diverse range of causes.[84]

Each year on the company’s birthday, AOL employees around the world are invited to participate in Monster Help Day, a global community service day dedicated to strengthening the communities in which AOL employees live and work.[85] Other corporate social responsibility initiatives include producing cause-related content for AOL properties; donating PSA campaigns throughout the AOL network; empowering consumers through cause-related contests and initiatives; implementing a permanent cause module on AOL’s homepage, dedicated to promoting a different nonprofit daily; and advocating for internet safety through its blog[86]

Criticism of AOL

In its earlier incarnation as a “walled garden” community and service provider, AOL received criticism for its community policies, terms of service, customer service. Prior to 2006, AOL was known for its direct mailing of CD-Roms and 3 1/2” floppy disks containing its software. The marketing tactic was criticized for its environmental cost, and AOL CDs were recognized as No. 1 on PCWorld’s top ten list of most annoying tech products.[87][88]

Company purchases

Notable people

See also


  1. ^ America, Online!. (January 4, 2009). Retrieved on July 8, 2011.
  2. ^ a b c d e f "AOL 2011 Annual Report, Form 10-K, Filing Date Feb 24, 2012". Retrieved June 4, 2012.
  3. ^ Lunden, Ingrid. "AOL Reorganizes Into Membership, Brand And Ad Units [Incl Armstrong's Memo"]. TechCrunch. Retrieved 6/29/12.
  4. ^ "International Services – About AOL".
  5. ^ "Company Overview". Retrieved May 7, 2009.
  6. ^ a b Goldfarb, Zachary and Sam Diaz (Tuesday September 18, 2007). "AOL Moving Executives, Headquarters to New York". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 7, 2009.
  7. ^ "AOL News Release November 6th, 2012". AOL Investor Relations. Retrieved November 6, 2012.
  8. ^ Holahan, Catherine (July 31, 2006). "Will Less Be More for AOL?". BusinessWeek. Archived from the original on 3 September 2006. Retrieved August 1, 2006.
  9. ^ "How the Internet took over". USA Today. April 30, 2007.
  10. ^ "The .com25 Honorees". thedotcom25. Retrieved October 19, 2010.
  11. ^ "Time Warner to Spin Off AOL on December 9" Retrieved on November 16, 2009.
  12. ^ "Time Warner to spin off AOL, ending ill-fated deal."
  13. ^ VASCELLARO and EMILY STEEL, JESSICA E.. "AOL Shifts Emphasis, Bit by Bit". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved September 29, 2010.
  14. ^ PETERS and VERNE G. KOPYTOFF, JEREMY W.. "Betting on News, AOL Is Buying The Huffington Post". The New York Times. Retrieved February 7, 2011.
  15. ^ "AOL Agrees To Acquire The Huffington Post". The Huffington Post. Retrieved February 7, 2011.
  16. ^ "AOL Mirrors TV Buying Model". Retrieved April 16, 2012.
  17. ^ a b VEGA and STUART ELLIOTT, TANZINA. "Small Screens, Big Dollars". The New York Times. Retrieved April 26, 2012.
  18. ^ "AOL Unveils The AOL On Network: Powerful New Video Platform Places High Value on Programmed Content". April 24, 2012.
  19. ^ "The 2012 Pulitzer Prize Winners: National Reporting".
  20. ^ "Huffington Post Wins Its First Pulitzer Prize". Mashable. Retrieved April 16, 2012.
  21. ^ Brown, Abram. "AOL To Sell, License Patents to Microsoft For Nearly $1.1 Billion; AOL Shares Soar 36%". Forbes. Retrieved April 9, 2012.
  22. ^ LAUNDER and JON KAMP, WILLIAM. "AOL Wins Proxy Fight, Easing Pressure on CEO". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved June 14, 2012.
  23. ^ a b c Klein, Alec (2003). Stealing Time: Steve Case, Jerry Levin, and the Collapse of AOL Time Warner. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-7432-5984-X.
  24. ^ "History of Computing Industrial Era (1985–1990)". The History of Computing Project. March 20, 2006. Archived from the original on 3 November 2005. Retrieved September 24, 2005.
  25. ^ "Apple II history chapter 22". December 31, 2002. Archived from the original on 28 August 2005. Retrieved September 24, 2005.
  26. ^ "AOL History: How much did it cost AOL to distribute all those CDs back in the 1990's?". Quora. 2010-12-24. Retrieved July 13, 2012.
  27. ^ Retrieved on July 8, 2011.
  28. ^ "" The Washington Post. April 17, 2005. Retrieved on May 7, 2009.
  29. ^ "Tysons Corner CDP, Virginia." United States Census Bureau. Retrieved on May 7, 2009.
  30. ^ Sugawara, Sandra. "America Online to Reduce Rates; Firm Faces Subscriber Boycott, Pressure From Competitors." The Washington Post. October 13, 1994. Financial B09. Retrieved on May 7, 2009.
  31. ^ "Company Overview." AOL. February 8, 2008. Retrieved on May 7, 2009.
  32. ^ Yang, Catherine (November 11, 2005). "Has AOL Met Its Match?". BusinessWeek. Retrieved August 1, 2006.
  33. ^ "America Online Changes Its Name to AOL". April 3, 2006. Archived from the original on 15 July 2006.,20812,1179447,00.html. Retrieved July 24, 2006.
  34. ^ AOL Launches Free Software To Improve PC Security For All Internet Users. Retrieved on July 8, 2011.
  35. ^ AOL News and Broadcast Center. (November 11, 2010). Retrieved on July 8, 2011.
  36. ^ "Carphone Warehouse buying AOL UK". BBC News. October 11, 2006. Retrieved April 25, 2010.
  37. ^ AOL scraps fees in bid to keep users. USA Today. Retrieved on April 9, 2012.
  38. ^ "AOL Uses Refurbished Software to Woo Customers". The Money Times. October 4, 2006. Archived from the original on 10 November 2006. Retrieved November 11, 2006.
  39. ^ (November 11, 2010). Retrieved on July 8, 2011.
  40. ^
  41. ^ Retrieved on July 8, 2011.
  42. ^ Retrieved on July 8, 2011.
  43. ^ a b c Pogue, David (January 6, 2007). "Fewer excuses for not doing a PC backup". The New York Times. Retrieved January 6, 2007. Quote: "Online backups, where files are shuttled off to the Internet for safekeeping, are suddenly becoming effortless, capacious and even free."
  44. ^ "Xdrive storage site to close". Webuser IPC Media Limited. January 5, 2009. Retrieved January 19, 2009.
  45. ^ "AOL (TWX): Randy Falco's Year-End Love Note to AOLers". Archived from the original on 18 December 2007. Retrieved December 18, 2007.
  46. ^ Mills, Elinor. "AOL hanging up on dial-up customers?". CNET. Archived from the original on 14 August 2006. Retrieved August 3, 2006.
  47. ^ "AOL price plans". Archived from the original on 1 November 2006. Retrieved October 29, 2006.
  48. ^ Steel, Emily (September 17, 2007). "AOL Moves Headquarters To New York City". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved September 17, 2007.
  49. ^ Hansell, Saul (October 15, 2007). "Tuesday is Layoff Day at AOL". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 17 October 2007. Retrieved October 17, 2007.
  50. ^ Rosencrance, Linda (November 8, 2007). "AOL revenue, subscribers plummet". ComputerWorld. Archived from the original on 17 November 2007. Retrieved November 12, 2007.
  51. ^ "CRG West accounces the acquisition of Data Center in Reston, Virginia" (PDF). January 3, 2008. Archived from the original on 17 December 2008. Retrieved November 16, 2008.
  52. ^ Time Warner Will Split AOL: Financial News – Yahoo! Finance[dead link]
  53. ^ BBC NEWS | Business AOL acquires Bebo social network
  54. ^, AOL shutting 3 services to cut costs, focus on ads
  55. ^ AOL's We're Closing Our Doors
  56. ^ We're Closing Our Doors – notice that was linked from banners on Hometown sites
  57. ^ Tim Armstrong Named Chairman and CEO of AOL. AOL Press Release. Retrieved on April 9, 2012.
  58. ^ Time Warner walking out on AOL marriage. MSNBC (May 28, 2009). Retrieved on July 8, 2011.
  59. ^ Public Class. "AOL". Wolff Olins. Retrieved January 30, 2012.
  60. ^ AOL Celebrates Day One as an Independent Company. AOL Press Release. Retrieved on April 9, 2012.
  61. ^ AOL prepares to shut down Bebo Retrieved on April 6, 2010.
  62. ^ AOL sells Bebo for scrap - and a $275 million tax break. CNN Money. Retrieved on April 12, 2011.
  63. ^ Why is AIM Chat Closed?. AOL Help. Retrieved on April 9, 2012.
  64. ^ Swisher, Kara. "Back to the Future: AOL Goes Local With Two Acquisitions (Including CEO's Company)". AllThingsD. Retrieved 6/11/09.
  65. ^ Armstrong, Tim (September 28, 2010). "We Got TechCrunch!". TechCrunch. Archived from the original on 1 October 2010. Retrieved September 29, 2010.
  66. ^ Arrington, Michael (September 28, 2010). "Why We Sold TechCrunch to AOL and Where We Go From Here". TechCrunch. Archived from the original on 29 September 2010. Retrieved September 29, 2010.
  67. ^ AOL Acquires Personal Profile Startup About.Me. TechCrunch. Retrieved April 9, 2012.
  69. ^ AOL buys Huffington Post: the beginning of the end?. Guardian. Retrieved on July 8, 2011.
  70. ^ Retrieved on July 8, 2011.
  71. ^ AOL cuts 900 jobs after HuffPo buy. CNN Money. Retrieved on April 9, 2012.
  72. ^ "". September 14, 2011. Retrieved January 30, 2012.
  73. ^ AOL acquires mobile photo-sharing app Hipster. VentureBeat. Retrieved on April 9, 2012.
  74. ^ AOL and Microsoft Announce $1.056 Billion Deal. AOL Press Release. Retrieved on April 9, 2012.
  75. ^ Thielman, Sam. "Nielsen, AOL Chase Ads With TV-Like Ratings Web giant issues bold guarantees regarding its online GRP's". AdWeek. Retrieved 4/16/12.
  76. ^ Coyle, Jake (April 24, 2012). "AOL launches online video network, AOL On". Associated Press. Retrieved May 1, 2012.
  77. ^ "AOL Products and Services: Content". Retrieved 7/24/2012.
  78. ^ "AOL On". Retrieved 7/24/2012.
  79. ^ "AOL Products & Services - Advertising". Retrieved 7/24/2012.
  80. ^ "AOL Products & Services - Local". Retrieved 7/24/2012.
  81. ^ "AOL Products & Services - AOL Membership". Retrieved 7/24/2012.
  82. ^ "AOL Products & Services - AOL Ventures". Retrieved 7/24/2012.
  83. ^ "AOL Corporate Site - Our Values". Retrieved 7/25/2012.
  84. ^ "The Givers". Adweek. Retrieved 7/9/2012.
  85. ^ "AOL Impact - Monster Help Day". AOL. Retrieved 7/25/2012.
  86. ^ "AOL Corporate Site - Corporate Citizenship". AOL. Retrieved 7/25/2012.
  87. ^ Dornin, Rusty. "CD overload? Send them back to AOL". CNN Tech. Retrieved October 17, 2002.
  88. ^ "Your Top 10 Most Annoying Tech Products". PC World. Retrieved April 16, 2007.
  89. ^ "Marc Andreessen". Retrieved October 19, 2010.
  90. ^ "A Panorama of Venture Capital and Beyond (Entire Talk)". May 13, 2010. Retrieved October 19, 2010.
  91. ^ Markoff, John. "James L. Barksdale". The New York Times.
  92. ^ "Supreme Court Denies Certiorari Petition in Zeran v. AOL". June 22, 1998.
  93. ^ "Jason Calacanis Departs AOL". November 16, 2006.
  94. ^ Bob Van Voris (August 1, 2006). "Steve Case immerses himself in life after AOL". Bloomberg News.
  95. ^ Perry, Simon (April 5, 2007). "Mary Cheney Expecting a Boy, Her Dad Reveals". People. Archived from the original on 27 May 2007.,,20033753,00.html. Retrieved May 28, 2007.
  96. ^ "Elwood Edwards". IMDB.
  97. ^ "Randy Falco Named Chairman and CEO of AOL LLC". Time Warner. November 15, 2006.,20812,1559998,00.html.
  98. ^ Nate Mook (January 3, 2005). "Justin Frankel Reveals Life After Winamp".
  99. ^ Parmy Olson (August 22, 2006). "Maureen Not Fit To Govern As AOL Tech Chief". Forbes.
  100. ^ Parmy Olson (November 21, 2006). "AOL and Time Warner Veteran Ron Grant Appointed President and COO of AOL LLC".,20812,1562032,00.html.
  101. ^ "Alexander Haig, Former SACEUR and Atlantic Council Director, Dead at 85". February 20, 2010.
  102. ^ (August 20, 2008). Retrieved on July 8, 2011.
  103. ^ Retrieved on July 8, 2011.
  104. ^ Retrieved on July 8, 2011.
  105. ^ McVeigh, Tracy (2009-05-09). "Joanna Lumley: Never mess with an old Avenger". The Observer. Guardian Media Group. Retrieved 2012-01-17.
  106. ^ (March 27, 2009). Retrieved on July 8, 2011.
  107. ^ "A conversation with... Robert W. Pittman, President of AOL Networks". The Washington Post. January 16, 1998.
  108. ^ Retrieved on July 8, 2011.
  109. ^ Retrieved on July 8, 2011.

External links

International Sites