G3A3 Battle Rifle
|Place of origin|| West Germany|
|Used by||See Users|
|Wars||Portuguese Colonial War|
Rhodesian Bush War
Six Day War
Salvadoran Civil War
Northern Ireland Troubles
Sierra Leone Civil War
Ethiopian Civil War
War in North-West Pakistan
Operation Enduring Freedom/ISAF - Afghanistan
Second Gulf War
Mexican Drug War
|Designer||Mauser, CETME, Heckler & Koch|
|Manufacturer||Heckler & Koch, Rheinmetall, SEDENA, Defense Industries Organization, FBP, Carl Gustafs Stads Gevärsfabrik, Husqvarna Vapenfabrik, Hellenic Arms Industry, Kongsberg Våpenfabrikk, MAS, Military Industry Corporation, MKEK, Pakistan Ordnance Factories, Royal Ordnance|
|Weight||4.1 kg (9.04 lb) (G3A3)|
4.7 kg (10 lb) (G3A4)
5.54 kg (12.2 lb) with optic (G3SG/1)
4.1 kg (9.0 lb) (G3K)
|Length||1,025 mm (40.4 in) (G3A3)|
1,025 mm (40.4 in) stock extended / 840 mm (33.1 in) stock collapsed (G3A4)
1,025 mm (40.4 in) (G3SG/1)
895 mm (35.2 in) stock extended / 711 mm (28.0 in) stock collapsed (G3K)
|Barrel length||450 mm (17.7 in)|
315 mm (12.4 in) (G3K)
|Rate of fire||500-600 rounds/min|
|Muzzle velocity||800 m/s (2,625 ft/s)|
|Effective range||500 metres (550 yd), 100–400 m sight adjustments|
|Feed system||20-round detachable box and 50-round drum magazine|
|Sights||Rear: rotary diopter; front: hooded post|
The G3 is a 7.62mm battle rifle developed in the 1950s by the German armament manufacturer Heckler & Koch GmbH (H&K) in collaboration with the Spanish state-owned design and development agency CETME (Centro de Estudios Técnicos de Materiales Especiales).
The early Mauser Gerät 06H
prototype assault rifle.
The origin of this rifle can be traced back to the final years of World War II when Mauser engineers at the Light Weapon Development Group (Abteilung 37) at Oberndorf am Neckar designed the MKb Gerät 06 (Maschinenkarabiner Gerät 06 or "machine carbine device 06") prototype assault rifle chambered for the intermediate 7.92x33mm Kurz cartridge, first with the Gerät 06 model using a roller-locked short recoil mechanism originally adapted from the MG 42 machine gun but with a fixed barrel and conventional gas-actuated piston rod. It was realized that with careful attention to the mechanical ratios, the gas system could be omitted. The resultant weapon, the Gerät 06H (the "H" suffix is an abbreviation for halbverriegelt or "half-locked") was assigned the designation StG 45(M) (Sturmgewehr 45(M) or assault rifle) but was not produced in any significant numbers and the war ended before the first production rifles were completed.
The German technicians involved in developing the StG 45(M) were taken to work in France at CEAM (Centre d'Etudes et d'Armement de Mulhouse). The StG 45(M) mechanism was modified by Ludwig Vorgrimler and Theodor Löffler at the Mulhouse facility between 1946 and 1949. Three versions were made, chambered in .30 Carbine, 7.92x33mm Kurz as well as the experimental 7.65x35mm French short cartridge developed by Cartoucherie de Valence in 1948. A 7.5x38mm cartridge using a partial aluminium bullet was abandoned in 1947. Löffler's design, designated the Carabine Mitrailleuse Modèle 1950, was retained for trials among 12 different prototypes designed by CEAM, MAC, and MAS. Engaged in the Indochina War and being the second NATO contributor, France canceled the adoption of these new weapons for financial reasons.
In 1950, Vorgrimler moved to Spain where he created the LV-50 rifle chambered for the Kurz cartridge and later, the proprietary 7.92x40mm CETME M53 round. At this point, the rifle was renamed the Modelo 2. The Modelo 2 drew the attention of the West German Border Guards (Bundesgrenzschutz), who sought to re-equip the newly formed national defense forces. Not willing to accept a cartridge outside of the NATO specification, the Germans asked CETME to develop a 7.62x51mm version of the rifle. The resulting CETME Model A was chambered for the 7.62x51mm CETME cartridge which was identical in chamber dimensions but had a reduced-power load compared to the 7.62mm NATO round. Further development of the rifle with input from H&K produced the CETME Model B which received several modifications, including the ability to fire from a closed bolt in both semi-automatic and automatic firing modes, a new perforated sheet metal handguard (the folding bipod had been the foregrip in previous models), improved ergonomics and a slightly longer barrel with a 22 mm rifle grenade launcher guide. In 1958, this rifle was accepted into service with the Spanish Army as the Modelo 58, using the 7.62x51mm CETME round.
In 1956, the Bundesgrenzschutz canceled their planned procurement of the CETME rifles, adopting the Belgian-made FN FAL (G1) instead. However, the newly formed West German Army (Bundeswehr) now showed interest and soon purchased a number of CETME rifles (7.62x51mm NATO chambering) for further testing. The CETME, known as the Automatisches Gewehr G3 according to German nomenclature, competed successfully against the Swiss SIG SG 510 (G2) and the American AR-10 (G4) to replace the previously favored G1 rifle. In January 1959, the Bundeswehr officially adopted the CETME proposal. The West German government wanted the G3 rifle to be produced under license in Germany; purchase of the G1 had previously fallen through over FN's refusal to grant such a license. In the case of the G3, the Dutch firm Nederlandse Wapen en Munitiefabriek (NWM) held production and sales rights to the CETME design outside of Spain. To acquire production rights, the West German government offered NWM contracts to supply the Luftwaffe with 20 mm ammunition. Production of the G3 was then assigned to Rheinmetall and H&K. The latter company already had ties to CETME, and had worked to further optimize the CETME rifle for use with the full-power 7.62x51mm NATO cartridge (as opposed to the downloaded CETME variant). In 1969, Rheinmetall gave up production rights to the G3 in exchange for H&K's promise not to bid on MG 3 production. Later in 1977, the West German government ceded ownership of G3 production and sales rights exclusively to H&K.
Initial production G3 rifles differed substantially from more recent models; early rifles featured closed-type mechanical flip-up sights (with two apertures), a lightweight folding bipod, a stamped sheet steel handguard, a wooden buttstock (in fixed stock models) or a telescopic metal stock. The weapon was modernized during its service life (among other minor modifications it received new sights, a different flash suppressor, and a synthetic handguard and shoulder stock), resulting in the most recent production models, the G3A3 (with a fixed polymer stock) and the G3A4 (telescoping metal stock). The rifle proved successful in the export market, being adopted by the armed forces of over 40 countries. The G3 was and in some cases continues to be produced under license in: France (MAS), Greece (Hellenic Arms Industry), Iran (Defense Industries Organization), Luxembourg (Luxemburg Defense Technologi), Mexico, Myanmar, Norway (Kongsberg Våpenfabrikk), Pakistan (Pakistan Ordnance Factories), Portugal (FBP), Saudi Arabia, Sweden (FFV), Thailand, Turkey (MKEK) and the United Kingdom (Royal Ordnance).
A schematic of the G3 roller-delayed blowback mechanism
The Heckler & Koch G3A4 (top) and G3A3 cutaway (bottom)
G3 fitted with a FERO-Z51 night vision optic
Disassembled G3A3 rifle. Note: modular design.
The G3A3 (A4) is a selective-fire automatic weapon that employs a roller-delayed blowback operating system. The two-piece bolt assembly consists of a breech (bolt head) and bolt carrier. The bolt is held in battery by two sliding cylindrical rollers that engage locking recesses in the barrel extension. The breech is opened when both rollers are compressed inward against camming surfaces driven by the rearward pressure of the expanding gases upon the bolt head. As the rollers move inward, recoil energy is transferred to the locking piece and bolt carrier which begin to withdraw while the bolt head slowly moves rearward in relation to the bolt carrier. As the bolt carrier clears the rollers, pressure in the bore drops to a safe level, the bolt head is caught by the bolt carrier and moves to the rear as one unit, continuing the operating cycle. The bolt also features an anti-bounce mechanism that prevents the bolt from bouncing off the barrel's breech surface. The spring-powered claw extractor is also contained inside the bolt while the lever ejector is located inside the trigger housing (actuated by the recoiling bolt).
The rifle is hammer fired and has a trigger mechanism with a 3-position fire selector switch that is also the manual safety toggle that secures the weapon from accidentally discharging (fire selector in the “E” or “1” position – single fire mode ("Einzelfeuer"), “F” or “20” – automatic fire ("Feuerstoß"), “S” or “0” – weapon is safe ("Sicher"), trigger disabled mechanically). The weapon can be fitted with an optional 4-position safety/fire selector group illustrated with pictograms with an ambidextrous selector lever. The additional, fourth selector setting enables a 3-round burst mode of fire.
The firearm was equipped with iron sights that consist of a rotary rear drum and hooded front post. The rear sight, mechanically adjustable for both windage and elevation, has an open notch used to fire up to 100 m and three apertures used for: 200, 300 and 400 m. The receiver housing has recesses that work with HK clamp adapters used to mount day or night optics.
The rifled barrel (contains 4 right-hand grooves with a 305 mm twist rate) terminates with a slotted flash suppressor which can also be used to attach a bayonet or serve as an adapter for launching rifle grenades. From the G3A3 the barrel had polygonal rifling. The barrel chamber is fluted, which assists in the initial extraction of a spent cartridge casing (since the breech is opened under very high barrel pressure).
The G3A3 (A4) uses either steel (260 g) or aluminium (140 g) double-stacked straight box magazines, or a 50 round drum magazine. Original H&K drums are rare and command high prices, a reproduction is available at much less cost from Allied Armament. H&K developed a prototype plastic disposable magazine in the early 1960s, but it was not adopted as aluminum magazines were just as light and proved more durable, as well as easier to produce.
Standard accessories supplied with the rifle include: a detachable bipod (not included with rifles that have a perforated plastic handguard), sling, cleaning kit and a speed-loading device. Several types of bayonet are available for the G3, but with few exceptions they require an adapter to be inserted into the end of the cocking tube. The most common type features a 6 3/4 inch spear-point blade nearly identical with the M7 bayonet, but with a different grip because of its mounting above the barrel. The weapon can also mount a 40 mm HK79 under-barrel grenade launcher, blank firing adapter a straight blowback bolt (called a “PT” bolt, lacks rollers) used for firing 7.62x51mm ammunition with plastic bullets, a conversion kit used for training with .22 LR ammunition and a sound suppressor (that uses standard ammunition).
The G3 is a modular weapon system. Its butt-stock, fore-stock and pistol-grip/fire-control assembly may be changed at will in a variety of configurations (listed below). For example: by simply removing push pins the fixed butt-stock can be removed and replaced with a telescoping butt-stock.
German sniper with G3A3ZF-DMR in Afghanistan
Apart from the G3A3 and G3A4 HK also built: the G3A3ZF (essentially a G3A3 with a Hensoldt 4x24 optical sight), the accurized G3SG/1 rifle (hand-selected G3A3’s, equipped with an improved trigger, Zeiss telescopic sight with a variable 1.5-6x magnification and a cheek riser) and the G3K carbine which uses an HK33 handguard and a short barrel (reduced in length to the base of the front sight post), that is too short for use with a bayonet or rifle grenades.
The G3 served as a basis for many other weapons, among them: the PSG1 and MSG90 precision rifles, the HK11 and HK21 family of light machine guns, a semi-automatic version known as the HK91, a "sporterized" model called the SR9 (designed for the civilian market in countries where the HK91 would not qualify, primarily the US after the 1989 importation restrictions) and the MC51 carbine, produced by the UK firm FR Ordnance International Ltd. for special forces. The MC51 weighs 3.1 kg (6.8 lb), has a folded overall length of 625 mm (24.6 in), a barrel length of only 230 mm (9.1 in), which produces a muzzle velocity of approx. 690 m/s (2,263.8 ft/s) and a muzzle energy of 2215 J. The MC51 was allegedly manufactured for the British SAS and SBS, who required a compact but powerful weapon, for situations in which the stopping power and armor piercing capabilities of 9x19mm Parabellum round were inadequate. Only 50 weapons were produced, and all were reportedly shipped to the UK special forces. Most of them were soon replaced by the Heckler & Koch HK53 carbine. Another UK-based company called Imperial Defence Services Ltd. absorbed FR Ordnance and continues to market the MC51 standard variant.
- G3: Original model based on the CETME Modelo B.
- G3A1: G3 with a single position, collapsible stock. This design was chosen after earlier experimentation with a ventrally-folding stock. Excessive recoil caused the latter to be dropped from consideration.
- G3A2: G3 with new rotating drum rear sight.
- G3A3: The most well known version. Drum sights, a fixed plastic buttstock, and a plastic handguard that does not contact the barrel. The handguard came in a slim, ventilated version and a wide version. The latter allows for the attachment of a bipod.
- G3A3A1: This is a version of the G3A3 with an ambidextrous trigger group and brass deflector. This is an official German Army designation, not an HK factory one.
- G3A4: The G3A4 uses drum sights and a single position, collapsible stock. This rifle could also be issued with a scope with the nomenclature G3A4ZF. The ZF stands for Zielfernrohr or "Telescope".
- G3A4A1: This is a variant of the G3A4 with an ambidextrous trigger group and brass deflector. This is an official German Army designation, not an HK factory one.
- G3KA4: Smallest of the line, it is a Karabiner, or carbine version of the G3. It features drum sights, a retractable stock, and a 315 mm (12.4 in) barrel.
- G3KA4A1: Variant of the G3KA4 with an ambidextrous trigger group and brass deflector. This is an official German Army designation, not an HK factory one.
- G3A5: HK assigned model number for the HK-made Danish version of the G3A3. It differs in that it has a silent bolt-closure device. In Danish service it is known as the Gv M/66. The Gv M/66 was originally intended for use with optics as a designated marksman rifle, while the rest of the squad were issued M1 Garands.
- G3A6: HK assigned model number for the Iranian-made version of the G3A3.
- G3A7: HK assigned model number for the Turkish-made version of the G3A3.
- HSG1: HK assigned model number for the Luxembourg- made version of G3A3.
Other military variants and derivatives
- Gv M/75: Variant leased from the German Bundeswehr / German government by the Danish government to replace the aging M1 Garands. Originally manufactured by either Rheinmetall or HK for the German Bundeswehr. The Gv M/75 rifles are basically G3's with the old style straight cocking tube as opposed to the later FS (Freischwinger) variant. Semi-automatic normally, though could be converted to fully automatic fire by changing the safety lever. This is done without tools.
- AG-3: Norwegian G3A5 variant produced by Kongsberg Våpenfabrikk. A total of 253,497 units were produced for the Norwegian Armed Forces from 1967 to 1974. The Norwegian AG-3 differs from the original G3; it has a buttstock that is approx. 2 cm longer, the bolt carrier has a serrated thumb groove to aid in silent bolt closure, it features an all-metal cocking handle and a different bayonet mount. On April 11, 2007, it was announced that the AG-3 would be replaced by the Heckler & Koch HK416, in all military branches except for certain groups of the Home Guard.
soldier providing security for coalition forces with a Swedish-made Ak4 in Iraq, 2006.
- AG-3F1: An AG-3 with a retractable stock as on G3A4. Produced by Kongsberg Våpenfabrikk. A retractable stock was required by certain groups of soldiers within the Norwegian Armed Forces, primarily vehicle crews with limited space inside, particularly where a quick disembarkment from such a vehicle is required. All versions of the AG-3 have the ability to attach a 40 mm HK79 grenade launcher.
- AG-3F2: An improvement of the AG-3F1, featuring Picatinny rails on the receiver as well as the foregrip.
- Ak 4: Swedish-made version of the G3A3, with a buttstock that is approx. 2 cm longer, the bolt carrier has a serrated thumb groove to aid in silent bolt closure and fitted with a heavy buffer for higher number of rounds fired before failure. The rifles were manufactured from 1965 to 1970 by both Carl Gustafs Stads Gevärsfabrik and Husqvarna Vapenfabrik and from 1970 until the end of production in 1985 - exclusively by Gevärsfabrik in Eskilstuna. Also produced with a Hensoldt 4x24 telescopic sight mounted via a HK claw mount, known as the Ak 4OR(No longer issued) and the Ak 4B variant, where the iron sights have been removed, and replaced with a Aimpoint CS red-dot reflex sight mounted on a permanently mounted picatinny rail. All Ak 4s are adapted to mount the M203 grenade launcher. Sweden has supplied Ak4s to Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania.
- DIO G3 Bullpup: Iranian bullpup variant of the G3. Photo
- G3A7A1: Turkish-made variant of the G3A4.
- G3P4: Pakistan Ordnance Factory designation for license produced G3A4 rifles.
Specialized G3 types
- G3TGS: This is simply a G3 with a 40 mm HK79 under-barrel grenade launcher. TGS stands for Tragbares Granat System ("portable grenade system").
- G3A3ZF: This is a rifle issued with a scope bracket and a scope. The ZF stands for Zielfernrohr or "telescopic sight".
- G3SG/1: An accurized variant of the G3. The "SG" stands for Scharfschützengewehr, or "sharpshooting rifle". The rifles were individually selected from the production line for their accuracy and then modified. A Zeiss 1.5-6x variable power telescopic sight was added using a HK claw mount attached to the receiver. The stock was extended slightly compared to the standard G3 fixed stock and comes with a heavy, dual-stage buffer and adjustable cheek rest. A special set trigger group was added for a crisp trigger pull of 1 lb. Automatic fire was retained.
- MSG3: A variant featuring the newer scope mount that is found on only a few of the Heckler & Koch rifles, as compared to the more conventional claw mounts, though the claw mounting points remain on the receiver. This newer scope mount does not allow the use of the open sights with the mount in place, as is the case with the more conventional claw mount.
- PSG-1: A free-floating barrel semi-auto only version of the G3 with numerous other upgrades and such to meet the necessities of police sniper units. This rifle is famous for its accuracy and comfort, but infamous for its price and inability to be deployed because some upgrades made the rifle too fragile.
- MSG-90: A somewhat cheaper version of the PSG-1 modified for military applications.
Law enforcement and civilian models
- HK41: The HK41 is a semi-automatic version of the G3 that was marketed to law-enforcement and civilian reservists (the prefix number 4 in HK's two-digit number system technically stands for "para-military rifle"). There were two versions, one differing from the G3 by being fitted with a semiautomatic-only trigger pack, the other using a different design of trigger pack, like that of the later HK91. The first version could easily be converted to a full-automatic weapon by swapping out several parts. Limited sales at home and US import restrictions and firearms regulations led this weapon to be dropped from HK's product line quickly and it was replaced by the HK91.
- HK91: The HK91 is a semi-automatic version of the G3 similar to the HK41, also marketed to civilians. However, in order to comply with US firearm regulations a number of modifications to the HK91 were made that do not appear on the first pattern HK41. Internal parts that could allow fully automatic fire were removed. A shelf was welded onto the receiver where the push-pin of the trigger pack would normally go, to prevent installation of a fully automatic trigger pack. This did not allow the use of the paddle style magazine release and so the magazine release button on the right side of the magazine well must be used instead. This was considered awkward by many owners. It is otherwise identical to the G3A3/A4. Importation into the United States began in 1974 and ceased in 1989, with some 48,000 rifles being imported.
- HK911: The HK911 was an HK91A2 with the flash hider removed and the receiver re-stamped with an extra 1 to comply with the US importation ban of 1989. The new designation theoretically made it legally immune to the Import Ban, as no "HK911" rifles were mentioned on the list of banned guns. However, the later banning of several "paramilitary" features on the HK911 made it illegal.
- SR9: These variants of the HK91ZF were created to comply with the Semi-Auto Import Ban of 1989, which included all variants of the HK91. They differed from the HK91 in that they had their flash hiders removed and featured a smooth forend that lacked the bipod attachment point. The SR9 series were banned from importation to the United States by President Clinton in 1997 because they could accept standard-capacity magazines. The SR9 was an HK91A2ZF with the pistol grip and buttstock replaced with a one-piece thumbhole stock.
- SR9 (T): The (T), or "Target", model was an HK91A2ZF with the trigger replaced with the PSG-1 model, the pistol grip replaced with an ergonomic PSG-1 grip and the buttstock replaced with an MSG90 model.
- SR9 (TC): The (TC), or "Target Competition", model was an HK91A2ZF with the trigger group, pistol grip and buttstock derived from the PSG-1.
- G3A1: The terminology used by custom gunsmiths (e.g. Choate) and importers (e.g. Interarms) for weapons with an aftermarket side-folding stock. This is not part of official HK nomenclature.
- HK 51: The HK51 is not made by HK, instead being a creation of the American custom after-market. The HK 51 has no real standards but is usually a cut down and modified G3A3 or its semi-automatic clones the HK41 and HK91 and modified to take MP5 furniture and accessories. It is usually fitted with a collapsible stock; 211 mm (8.31 in) barrel; it is 589 mm (23.17 in) in length with the stock retracted and 780 mm (30.72 in) with the stock extended. Originally made by Fleming Firearms.
- PTR 91 Series: Additionally, JLD started manufacturing semi-automatic copies of the HK G3 called the PTR 91 in the United States. They used tooling from the FMP arms factory in Portugal to build the rifles.
- SAR-3: Semi-automatic copy of HK-91 made by Hellenic Arms in Greece and imported into the United States by Springfield Armory.
- SAR-8: Post-ban version of SAR-3, modified to comply with import restrictions.
Danish soldiers carrying the G3A5 variant.
soldiers in NBC gear with Greek-made G3s.
soldiers on exercise with various Caribbean
countries, as well as American and British forces. The soldier on the right is carrying a G3A3 with a blank-firing attachment on the muzzle
infantryman with the G3A4 rifle
- Argentina: Grupo Halcón (Buenos Aires Police Special Operations Group).
- Bangladesh: Manufactured by the Bangladesh Ordnance Factory for the armed forces.
- Burkina Faso
- Côte d'Ivoire
- Denmark: G3A5, as the Gevær Model 1966 (Gv M/66). Another variant, designated Gevær Model 1975 (Gv M/75) was leased from the German government.
- Dominican Republic
- El Salvador
- Estonia: Uses the Ak4 variant.
- Germany: Used by the German Army for many years. Some variants still in use.
- Greece: Made under license by Ellinika Amyntika Systimata (EAS) (English—"Hellenic Defense Systems"), formerly under EBO ("Hellenic Arms Industry").
- Haiti 
- Iran: Manufactured locally by Defense Industries Organization in two variants, the fixed stock G3-A4 and a bullpup variant known as the G3-A3.
- Latvia: Ak4 variant.
- Lithuania: Ak4 variant was used by the Lithuanian Armed Forces.
- Malaysia: G3SG1 variant.
- Nigeria: Produced under license by Defense Industries Corporation.
- Norway: AG-3, a modified G3A5 made by Kongsberg Våpenfabrikk, later renamed to Norsk Forsvarsteknologi. Has been replaced by the Heckler & Koch HK416. The AG-3 will still remain in use in selected units. Production of the AG3 ended in 1973.
- Pakistan: Variants in use by the Pakistani military are locally produced by Pakistan Ordnance Factories in Wah Cantt. Manufactured are the G3A3 and a version of the G3A4, which carries the factory designation G3P4.
- Portugal: Made under license by INDEP as the G3 m/961 (G3A4) and G3A3 m/963 (G3A3).
- Rhodesia: G3A3 variant.
- Saudi Arabia: Made under license in Al-Kharj military complex.
- South Africa: Standard issue rifle of the South Africa Marine Corps until it was replaced by the R5 in the 1980s.
- Sudan: Made under license by Military Industry Corporation as the Dinar.
- Sweden: Made by 3 manufacturers, Heckler & Koch in Germany, and under license by Husqvarna Vapenfabrik (Years of mfg. 1965-70) and Carl Gustaf Gevärsfaktori (Years of mfg. 1965-80) which was later renamed to Förenade Fabriksverken (FFV) as the Ak 4 (Automatkarbin 4). Two sub-variants are known to exist, one equipped with a rail and Aimpoint sight (Ak4 B) and the other with a 4x magnifying optic, the Hensoldt ZF4x24 (Ak 4OR). It has since been replaced by the Ak 5 (Automatkarbin 5; a modified version of the FN FNC) in the regular army. AK4 B, some times in combination with the M203 grenade launcher, is still in use in Hemvärnet - Nationella skyddsstyrkorna ("Swedish Home Guard").
- Turkey: Made under license by Makina ve Kimya Endüstrisi Kurumu (MKEK) ("Mechanical and Chemical Industry Corporation") as the G3A7.
- United Arab Emirates
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- (Polish) Woźniak, Ryszard (2001). Encyklopedia najnowszej broni palnej—tom 2 G-Ł. Warsaw, Poland: Bellona. ISBN 83-11-09310-5.