A&M Records

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A&M Records
A&M Records logo.png
Parent companyUniversal Music Group
Founded1962
FounderHerb Alpert
Jerry Moss
Distributor(s)Interscope-Geffen-A&M
(In the US)
Polydor Records
(Outside the US)
GenreVarious
Country of originUnited States
LocationSanta Monica, California
Official WebsiteOfficial website
 
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A&M Records
A&M Records logo.png
Parent companyUniversal Music Group
Founded1962
FounderHerb Alpert
Jerry Moss
Distributor(s)Interscope-Geffen-A&M
(In the US)
Polydor Records
(Outside the US)
GenreVarious
Country of originUnited States
LocationSanta Monica, California
Official WebsiteOfficial website

A&M Records is an American record label owned by Universal Music Group that operates under the mantle of its Interscope-Geffen-A&M division.

Contents

History

Beginnings

A&M Records was formed in 1962 by Herb Alpert and Jerry Moss. Their first choice for a name was Carnival Records, under which they released two singles before discovering another label had taken the Carnival name first. The company was subsequently renamed A&M, after Alpert's and Moss's initials. From 1966 to 1999, the company's headquarters were on the grounds of the historic Charlie Chaplin Studios at 1416 North La Brea Avenue, near Sunset Boulevard in Hollywood.

Throughout the 1960s and 1970s, A&M had such acts as Herb Alpert & the Tijuana Brass, Baja Marimba Band, Burt Bacharach, Sérgio Mendes & Brasil ’66, We Five, The Carpenters, Chris Montez, Elkie Brooks, Lee Michaels, The Captain and Tennille, Quincy Jones, Stealers Wheel, Marc Benno, Liza Minnelli, Rita Coolidge, Wes Montgomery, Paul Desmond, Cat Stevens, Bobby Tench, Hummingbird, Toni Basil, and Paul Williams. Folk artists Joan Baez, Phil Ochs and Gene Clark also recorded for the label during the 1970s. Billy Preston joined the label in 1971, followed by Andre Popp and Herb Ohta in 1973.

In the late 1960s, through direct signing and licensing agreements, A&M added several British artists to its roster, including Cat Stevens, Joe Cocker, Procol Harum, Humble Pie, Fairport Convention, Free, The Move, and Spooky Tooth. In the 1970s, under its manufacturing and distribution agreement with Ode Records, A&M released albums by Carole King and the comedy duo Cheech & Chong. Other notable acts of the time included Nazareth, Y&T, the Tubes, Styx, Supertramp, Rick Wakeman, the Ozark Mountain Daredevils, Chuck Mangione, Squeeze, and Peter Frampton. On March 10, 1977, A&M signed the Sex Pistols after the band had been dropped by EMI. However, A&M dropped the band within a week.[1] A&M sustained its success during the 1980s with a roster of noted acts that included Henry Badowski, Janet Jackson, the Police, Sting, The Brothers Johnson, Falco, Atlantic Starr, the Go-Go's, Chris De Burgh, Bryan Adams, Suzanne Vega, Brenda Russell, Jeffrey Osborne, Oingo Boingo, Human League, Ozark Mountain Daredevils, Sharon, Lois & Bram, Annabel Lamb, Jim Diamond, Vital Signs, Joe Jackson, and Scottish rock band Gun.

Within a decade of its inception, A&M became the world's largest independent record company[citation needed]. A&M releases were initially issued in the United Kingdom by EMI's Stateside Records label, and then under its own name by Pye Records until 1967. A&M releases were also issued in Australia through Festival Records until 1989. A&M Records Ltd.[2] was established in 1970, with distribution handled by other labels with a presence in Europe. A&M Records of Canada Ltd.[3] was also formed in 1970, and A&M Records of Europe in 1977. In 1979, A&M entered a distribution agreement with RCA Records (which later became BMG) in the USA, and with CBS Records (whose successor Sony Music Entertainment later absorbed BMG) in many other countries.

Over the years, A&M added specialty imprints: Almo International[4] for middle of the road; Omen Records (1964–1966)[5] for soul; Horizon Records[6] for jazz (1974–1978); AyM Discos[7] for Latin-American; Vendetta Records[8] for dance music (1988–1990); and Tuff Break Records for hip-hop music (1993–1995).[9]

The PolyGram years

A&M was bought by PolyGram in 1989. Alpert and Moss continued to manage the label until 1993. The sale to PolyGram stipulated that Alpert and Moss had an integrity clause allowing them to control the label's image through 2009. In 1998, Alpert and Moss sued PolyGram for breach of the integrity clause, eventually settling for an additional $200 million payment.[10]

In 1991, A&M launched Perspective Records[11] as a joint venture with producing team Jimmy Jam and Terry Lewis. Jam and Lewis stepped down as CEOs of the imprint in 1997, but they remained on as consultants. In 1999, the label was absorbed into A&M. In the mid-1990s, A&M began distributing its PolyGram sister label Polydor Records in the USA.

During the 1990s, the company continued to release albums by Soundgarden, Extreme, Amy Grant, John Hiatt, Sting, Blues Traveler, Barry White, and Aaron Neville, as well as material from new artists Sheryl Crow, Therapy?, CeCe Peniston, and the Gin Blossoms. The company released the soundtracks Robin Hood: Prince of Thieves, The Three Musketeers, Sabrina, The Living Sea, Demolition Man, and Lethal Weapon 3.

Universal Music Group

In 1998, PolyGram was bought by Seagram and merged with its MCA Records family to create Universal Music. A&M was subsequently merged into Universal Music Group's then newly formed Interscope-Geffen-A&M label group. Its Canadian division was absorbed into Universal Music Canada that time, which included Jann Arden alongside other artists from Canada. Bryan Adams continued to record on that label.

The A&M lot on La Brea Avenue was shut down in January 1999. During the farewell celebration, the company's staff placed a black band over the A&M sign above the main entrance, indicating the death of the company. Most of the company's workforce, some of whom had been with the company for a decade or more, were let go, while many of its artists were dropped. Al Cafaro stated,

"This isn't about Universal or Seagram. The record business is changing fundamentally. Don't think that there are calm seas on the other side of this threshold. If the quake that devoured A&M and Geffen is a 6.0 on the Richter scale, there is a 7.0 coming in this industry. It's a Wall Street world now. Get ready."[12]

Alpert and Moss sued Universal Music Group in 2000, claiming that they had violated a contractual agreement stating that A&M Records would be allowed to retain its corporate culture[citation needed]. The suit was later settled.

The first multi-platinum A&M Records release under Universal Music Group and Interscope was Sting's 1999 album Brand New Day.

The old A&M studios and executive offices are now the home of Jim Henson Productions, which operates Henson Recording Studios.

A&M catalog albums that did not fit the current pop music format (which also includes rock, rap, and R&B) of their new parent division were transferred to other Universal divisions for management - for example, Verve Records now manages A&M's jazz catalog, not including Herb Alpert's recorded output which Alpert acquired in the settlement with Universal Music and are licensed to Shout! Factory (however, Verve does manage the Horizon Records catalog).[13]

In February 2007, Interscope-Geffen-A&M partnered with Octone Records to relaunch the A&M label, now headed by James Diener and called A&M/Octone Records with worldwide distribution handled by parent Universal Music Group. The existing Octone roster was transferred to the A&M/Octone label and all new artist signings are made under the A&M/Octone joint venture.[14]

Subsidiary labels

Former

Current

See also

References

  1. ^ Southall, Brian (2007). Sex Pistols: 90 Days at EMI. Bobcat Books Ltd., London. pp. 138–9. ISBN 978-1-84609-779-9. 
  2. ^ "A&M Records Ltd.". On A&M Records.com.. 2007. http://www.onamrecords.com/Britain_History.html. 
  3. ^ "A&M Records Canada". On A&M Records.com.. 2003. http://www.onamrecords.com/Canada_History.html. 
  4. ^ "Almo International". On A&M Records.com.. 2003. http://www.onamrecords.com/Almo_International.html. 
  5. ^ "Omen Records". On A&M Records.com.. 2007. http://www.onamrecords.com/Omen_Records.html. 
  6. ^ "Horizon Records History". On A&M Records.com.. 2003. http://www.onamrecords.com/Horizon_Records.html. 
  7. ^ "AyM Discos History". On A&M Records.com.. 2003. http://www.onamrecords.com/AyM_Discos.html. 
  8. ^ "Vendetta Records". On A&M Records.com.. 2007. http://www.onamrecords.com/Vendetta_Records.html. 
  9. ^ "Tuff Break". On A&M Records.com.. 2007. http://www.onamrecords.com/Tuff_Break.html. for hip hop music (1993-1995)
  10. ^ "Herb Alpert's Vivendi Deal Has $200-Million Encore Performance". LA Times.com. 1999. http://articles.latimes.com/2003/mar/12/business/fi-alpert12. 
  11. ^ "Perspective Records". On A&M Records.com.. 2006. http://www.onamrecords.com/Perspective_Records.html. 
  12. ^ Black Thursday: A&M Shuts Its Doors
  13. ^ "Herb Alpert". Shout! Factory. Archived from the original on 16 July 2011. http://www.shoutfactory.com/browse/42/herb_alpert.aspx. Retrieved 2011-07-16. 
  14. ^ Todd, Martens (February 20, 2007). "Interscope Geffen A&M Shifting To Octone". Billboard. http://www.billboard.biz/bbbiz/content_display/industry/e3i00c30daf8fb3b8f13ac1a1dbdc1e2cb2. Retrieved February 8, 2010. 

External links