This article is about the number five. For the year AD 5, see 5. For other uses of 5, see 5 (disambiguation).
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The number 5 is the fifth Fibonacci number, being 2 plus 3. 5 is also a Pell number and a Markov number, appearing in solutions to the Markov Diophantine equation: (1, 2, 5), (1, 5, 13), (2, 5, 29), (5, 13, 194), (5, 29, 433), ... (A030452 lists Markov numbers that appear in solutions where one of the other two terms is 5). Whereas 5 is unique in the Fibonacci sequence, in the Perrin sequence 5 is both the fifth and sixth Perrin numbers.
Five is the only prime number to end in the digit 5, because all other numbers written with a 5 in the ones-place under the decimal system are multiples of five. As a consequence of this, 5 is in base 10 a 1-automorphic number.
Vulgar fractions with 5 or 2 in the denominator do not yield infinite decimal expansions, unlike expansions with all other prime denominators, because they are prime factors of ten, the base. When written in the decimal system, all multiples of 5 will end in either 5 or 0.
The evolution of the modern Western glyph for five cannot be neatly traced back to the Indian system as for the numbers 1 to 4. The Kushana and Gupta empires in what is now India had among themselves several different glyphs which bear no resemblance to the modern glyph. The Nagari and Punjabi took these glyphs and all came up with glyphs that are similar to a lowercase "h" rotated 180°. The Ghubar Arabs transformed the glyph in several different ways, producing glyphs that were more similar to the numbers 4 or 3 than to the number 5.
It was from those characters that Europeans finally came up with the modern 5, though from purely graphical evidence, it would be much easier to conclude that the modern symbol came from the Khmer. The Khmer glyph develops from the Kushana/Ândhra/Gupta numeral, its shape looking like the modern version with an extended swirled 'tail' 
The Khamsa, an ancient symbol shaped like a hand with five fingers, is used as a protective amulet by Jews; that same symbol is also very popular in Arabic culture, known to protect from envy and the evil eye.
In Islam, particularly Shia Islam, the Panjetan or the Five Holy Purified Ones are the members of Muhammad's family: Muhammad, Ali, Fatima, Hasan, and Husayn and is often symbolically represented by an image of the Khamsa.
The five sacred Sikh symbols prescribed by Guru Gobind Singh are commonly known as Panj Kakars or the 'Five Ks' because they start with letter K representing Kakka (ਕ) in the Punjabi language/Gurmukhi Script. They are: Kesh (unshorn hair), Kangha (the comb), Kara (the steel bracelet), Kachhehra (the soldiers shorts), and Kirpan (the sword) [in Gurmukhi Script: ਕੇਸ, ਕੰਘਾ, ਕੜਾ, ਕਛਹਰਾ, ਕਿਰਪਾਨ]. Also, there are five deadly evils: Kam (lust), Krodh (anger), Moh (attachment), Lobh (greed), and Ankhar (ego).
Members of The Nation of Gods and Earths, a primarily African American religious organization, call themselves the "Five-Percenters" because they believe that only 5% of mankind is truly enlightened.
A perfect fifth is the most consonant harmony, and is the basis for most western tuning systems.
Modern musical notation uses a musical staff made of five horizontal lines.
In harmonics – the fifth partial (or 4th overtone) of a fundamental has a frequency ratio of 5/1 to the frequency of that fundamental. This ratio corresponds to the interval of 2 octaves + a pure major third. Thus, the interval of 5/4 is the interval of the pure third. A majortriadchord when played in just intonation (most often the case in a cappella vocal ensemble singing), will contain such a pure major third.
The Cincinnati Reds have retired the number twice. The first was in 1940 for Willard Hershberger, who committed suicide during the season. The number was returned to service in 1942, and was later retired a second time for Hall of Famer Johnny Bench.
The Florida Marlins retired the number for their first president Carl Barger, who died in December 1992, four months before the team's first game. The number was chosen because DiMaggio was Barger's favorite player. When the team renamed itself the Miami Marlins in advance of its 2012 move to a new stadium, it decided to honor Barger with a plaque at the new park and placed the number into circulation.
The Toronto Maple Leafs, for Bill Barilko. The Leafs have a unique policy of not retiring numbers unless the player honoured either died or suffered a career-ending incident while a member of the team. Barilko disappeared while on a fishing trip in 1951; his presumed death was confirmed when the wreckage of the plane he was on was discovered in a remote section of Ontario in 1962.
In professional wrestling, if a wrestler grabs the ropes when he is in a submission hold, the attacking wrestler has up to a 5 count to break the hold until a disqualification is made. This is also the case for choking.
In radio communication, the term "Five by five" is used to indicate perfect signal strength and clarity.
On almost all devices with a numeric keypad such as telephones, computers, etc., the 5 key has a raised dot or raised bar to make dialing easier. Persons who are blind or have low vision find it useful to be able to feel the keys of a telephone. All other numbers can be found with their relative position around the 5 button (on computer keyboards, the 5 key of the numpad has the raised dot or bar, but the 5 key that shifts with % does not).
On most telephones, the 5 key is associated with the letters J, K, and L, but on some of the BlackBerry phones, it is the key for G and H.
In the computer game Riven, 5 is considered a holy number, and is a recurring theme throughout the game, appearing in hundreds of places, from the number of islands in the game, to the number of bolts on pieces of machinery.
^Bryan Bunch, The Kingdom of Infinite Number. New York: W. H. Freeman & Company (2000): 61
^Georges Ifrah, The Universal History of Numbers: From Prehistory to the Invention of the Computer transl. David Bellos et al. London: The Harvill Press (1998): 394, Fig. 24.65
^Ifrah, Georges (1998). The universal history of numbers : from prehistory to the invention of the computer (in translated from the French by David Bellos ... [et al.]). London: Harvill Press. ISBN978-1-86046-324-2.