19th century (January 1, 1801 – December 31, 1900) was a period in history marked by the collapse of the Spanish, First and Second French, Chinese, [1 ] Holy Roman and Mughal empires. This paved the way for the growing influence of the British Empire, Russian Empire, German Empire, the United States and the Empire of Japan, spurring military conflicts but also advances in science and exploration.
After the defeat of the
French Empire and its allies in the Napoleonic Wars, the British Empire became the world's leading power, controlling one quarter of the world's population and one fifth of the total land area. It enforced a Pax Britannica, encouraged trade, and battled rampant piracy. The 19th century was an era of invention and discovery, with significant developments in the fields of mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology, electricity, and metallurgy that laid the groundwork for the technological advances of the 20th century. The [2 ] Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain. The [3 ] Victorian era was notorious for the employment of young children in factories and mines, as well as strict moral values involving modesty and gender roles. Japan embarked on a program of rapid modernization following the [4 ] Meiji Restoration, before defeating China, under the Qing Dynasty, in the First Sino-Japanese War. Advances in medicine and the understanding of human anatomy and disease prevention took place in the 19th century, and were partly responsible for rapidly accelerating population growth in the western world. Europe's population doubled during the 19th century, from roughly 200 million to more than 400 million. The introduction of [5 ] railroads provided the first major advancement in land transportation for centuries, changing the way people lived and obtained goods, and fueling major urbanization movements in countries across the globe. Numerous cities worldwide surpassed populations of a million or more during this century. London was transformed into the world's largest city and capital of the British Empire. Its population expanded from 1 million in 1800 to 6.7 million a century later. The last remaining undiscovered landmasses of Earth, including vast expanses of interior Africa and Asia, were discovered during this century, and with the exception of the extreme zones of the Arctic and Antarctic, accurate and detailed maps of the globe were available by the 1890s. Liberalism became the preeminent reform movement in Europe. [6 ] Arab slave traders
and their captives along the Ruvuma river (in today's Tanzania and Mozambique), 19th century
Slavery was greatly reduced around the world. Following a successful slave revolt in Haiti, Britain forced the Barbary pirates to halt their practice of kidnapping and enslaving Europeans, banned slavery throughout its domain, and charged its navy with ending the global slave trade. The first empire to abolish slavery was the Portuguese Empire, followed by Britain, who did so in 1834. America's [7 ] 13th Amendment following their Civil War abolished slavery there in 1865, and in Brazil slavery was abolished in 1888 (see Abolitionism). Similarly, serfdom was abolished in Russia.
The 19th century was remarkable in the widespread formation of new
settlement foundations which were particularly prevalent across North America and Australasia, with a significant proportion of the two continents' largest cities being founded at some point in the century. In the 19th century approximately 70 million people left Europe. [8 ]
The 19th century also saw the rapid creation, development and codification of many sports, particularly in Britain and the United States.
Association football, rugby union, baseball and many other sports were developed during the 19th century, while the British Empire facilitated the rapid spread of sports such as cricket to many different parts of the world.
It also marks the fall of the Ottoman occupation of the Balkans which led to the creation of
Serbia, Bulgaria, Montenegro and Romania as a result of the second Russo-Turkish War, which in itself followed the great Crimean War. Eras [edit ] Events [edit ]
Map of the world from 1897. The
(marked in pink) was the superpower of the 19th century.
The discoveries of
formed the foundation of electric motor technology
: 29 January,
arrives in Singapore with
to establish a trading post for the
British East India Company
. 8 February, The treaty is signed between Sultan Hussein of Johor, Temenggong Abdul Rahman and Stamford Raffles. Farquhar is installed as the first Resident of the settlement.
rises to power over the
. Zulu expansion was a major factor of the
(“Crushing”) that depopulated large areas of southern Africa
1830: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints is established on April 6, 1830. 1830: July Revolution in France. 1830: The Belgian Revolution in the United Kingdom of the Netherlands led to the creation of Belgium. 1830: Greater Colombia dissolved and the nations of Colombia (including modern-day Panama), Ecuador, and Venezuela took its place. 1830: November Uprising in Poland against Russia. 1831: France invades and occupies Algeria. 1831: The Belgian constitution is ratified and Leopold I is crowned as first "King of the Belgians". 1831: Great Bosnian uprising against Ottoman rule occurs. 1831– 1836: Charles Darwin's journey on the HMS Beagle.
. From 1830 to 1914, almost 5 million Irish people went to the United States alone.
1831: November Uprising ends with crushing defeat for Poland in the Battle of Warsaw. 1831- 1833: Egyptian–Ottoman War. 1831: Second phase of Padri War. (to 1838) 1832: The British Parliament passes the Great Reform Act. 1833: Slavery Abolition Act bans slavery throughout the British Empire. 1833– 1876: Carlist Wars in Spain. 1834: The German Customs Union is formed. 1834: Spanish Inquisition officially ends. 1834: Britain amends the Poor Law demanding that any paupers requesting assistance must go to a workhouse. 1834– 1859: Imam Shamil's rebellion in Russian-occupied Caucasus. 1835– 1836: The Texas Revolution in Mexico resulted in the short-lived Republic of Texas. 1836: Battle of the Alamo ends with defeat for Texan separatists. 1836: Battle of San Jacinto leads to the capture of General Santa Anna. 1836: Samuel Colt popularizes the revolver and sets up a firearms company to manufacture his invention of the Colt Paterson revolver a six bullets firearm shot one by one without reloading manually. 1837: Telegraphy patented. 1837: Charles Dickens publishes . Oliver Twist 1837: Death of Alexander Pushkin. 1837– 1838: Rebellions of 1837 in Canada. 1837– 1901: Queen Victoria's reign is considered the apex of the British Empire and is referred to as the Victorian era. 1838: By this time, 46,000 Native Americans have been forcibly relocated in the Trail of Tears. 1838– 1840: Civil war in the Federal Republic of Central America led to the foundings of Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica. 1839: Kingdom of Belgium declared. 1839– 1851: Uruguayan Civil War. 1839– 1860: After two Opium Wars, France, the United Kingdom, the United States and Russia gained many concessions from China resulting in the decline of the Qing Dynasty. 1839– 1919: Anglo-Afghan Wars lead to stalemate and the establishment of the Durand line The Great Exhibition
in London. The United Kingdom was the first country in the world to industrialise.
Dead Confederate soldiers. 30% of all Southern white males 18–40 years of age died in the
American Civil War
[12 ] Robert Koch
discovered the tuberculosis bacilli. In the 19th century,
killed an estimated one-quarter of the adult population of Europe.
[13 ] 1865– 1877: Reconstruction in the United States; Slavery is banned in the United States by the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution. 1865-April 9, 1865: Robert E. Lee surrenders the Army of Northern Virginia (26,765 troops) to Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox Courthouse, Virginia, effectively ending the American Civil War. 1865-April 14, 1865: United States President Abraham Lincoln is assassinated while attending a performance at Ford's Theater, Washington, D.C.. He dies approximately nine hours after being shot on April 15, 1865. 1865: Gregor Mendel formulates his laws of inheritance. 1866: Successful transatlantic telegraph cable follows an earlier attempt in 1858. 1866: Austro-Prussian War results in the dissolution of the German Confederation and the creation of the North German Confederation and the Austrian-Hungarian Dual Monarchy. 1866– 1868: Famine in Finland. 1866– 1869: After the Meiji Restoration, Japan embarks on a program of rapid modernization. 1867: The United States purchases Alaska from Russia. 1867: Canadian Confederation formed. 1867: The Principality of Serbia passes a Constitution which defines its independence from the Ottoman Empire. International recognition followed in 1878. 1867: The Luxembourg Crisis: diplomatic confrontation between France and Prussia on the status of Luxembourg and the towns fortifications are torn down. 1868: The Expatriation Act of 1868 is approved by the U.S. Congress, one of the early blows which would eventually lead to the death of the common law doctrine of perpetual allegiance 1868: The Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution is approved. 1868: Cro-Magnon man first identified. 1868– 1878: Ten Years' War between Cuba and Spain. 1868: The Batavian Museum (today National Museum of Indonesia) was officially opened by Dutch East Indies government. 1869: First Transcontinental Railroad completed in United States on May 10. 1869: Dmitri Mendeleev created the Periodic table. 1869: The Suez Canal opens linking the Mediterranean to the Red Sea.
lost more than half of its population in the
against Brazil, Argentina, and Uruguay.
1870– 1871: The Franco-Prussian War results in the unifications of Germany and Italy, the collapse of the Second French Empire and the emergence of a New Imperialism. 1870: Official dismantling of the Cultivation System and beginning of a ' Liberal Policy' of deregulated exploitation of the Netherlands East Indies. [15 ] 1871- 1878: In Germany, Otto von Bismarck attacks the privileges of the Catholic Church in the ("Culture War") Kulturkampf 1871– 1872: Famine in Persia is believed to have caused the death of 2 million. 1871– 1914: Second Industrial Revolution 1870- 1890: Long Depression in Western Europe and North America. 1871: The Paris Commune briefly rules the French capital. 1871: The feudal system is dismantled in Japan. 1871: Henry Morton Stanley meets Dr. David Livingstone near Lake Tanganyika. 1872: Yellowstone National Park, the first national park, is created. 1872: The first recognised international soccer match, between England and Scotland, is played. 1873: The Panic of 1873 starts the " Long Depression". 1873: Maxwell's published. A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism 1873: The samurai class is abolished in Japan. 1873: Blue jeans and barbed wire are invented. 1873: The beginning of the bloody Aceh War for Dutch occupation of the province. [15 ] 1874: The Société Anonyme Coopérative des Artistes Peintres, Sculpteurs, and Graveurs, better known as the Impressionists, organize and present their first public group exhibition at the Paris studio of the photographer Nadar. 1874: The Home Rule Movement is established in Ireland. 1874: The British East India Company is dissolved. 1874– 1875: First Republic in Spain. 1875: surveys the deepest point in the Earth's oceans, the HMS Challenger Challenger Deep 1875– 1900: 26 million Indians perish in India due to famine. 1876: Bulgarians instigate the April Uprising against Ottoman rule. 1876: Richard Wagner's is first performed in its entirety. Ring Cycle 1876: Queen Victoria becomes Empress of India. 1876: Battle of the Little Bighorn leads to the death of General Custer and victory for the alliance of Lakota, Cheyenne and Arapaho 1876– 1879: 13 million Chinese die of famine in northern China. 1876– 1914: The massive expansion in population, territory, industry and wealth in the United States is referred to as the Gilded Age. 1877: Great Railroad Strike in the United States may have been the world's first nationwide labor strike. 1877: Crazy Horse surrenders and is later killed 1877: Asaph Hall discovers the moons of Mars 1877: Thomas Edison invents the phonograph 1877– 1878: Following the Russo-Turkish War, the Treaty of Berlin recognizes formal independence of the Principality of Serbia, Montenegro and Romania. Bulgaria becomes autonomous. 1878: First commercial telephone exchange in New Haven, Connecticut.
A barricade in the
, March 18, 1871. Around 30,000 Parisians were killed, and thousands more were later executed.
1879: Anglo-Zulu War in South Africa. 1879: Thomas Edison tests his first light bulb. 1879– 1880: Little War against Spanish rule in Cuba leads to rebel defeat. 1879– 1883: Chile battles with Peru and Bolivia over Andean territory in the War of the Pacific. 1879- 1884: Belgium is engulfed in a political crisis, dubbed the First Schools' War, over the role of religion in state education. 1879: 21 April, Kartini was born in Jepara, today the date is commemorated as women's emancipation day in Indonesia. 1880– 1881: the First Boer War. 1881: Tsar Alexander II is assassinated. 1881: Wave of pogroms begins in the Russian Empire. 1881: Gunfight at the O.K. Corral. Sitting Bull surrenders. 1881: First electrical power plant and grid in Godalming, Britain. 1881- 1882: The Jules Ferry laws are passed in France establishing free, secular education. 1881– 1899: The Mahdist War in Sudan. 1882: The British invasion and subsequent occupation of Egypt 1883: Krakatoa volcano explosion, one of the largest in modern history. 1883: The quagga is rendered extinct. 1883: Robert Louis Stevenson's is published. Treasure Island 1884: Siege of Khartoum. 1884: Germany gains control of Cameroon. 1884: Mark Twain publishes . The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn 1884– 1885: The Berlin Conference signals the start of the European " scramble for Africa". Attending nations also agree to ban trade in slaves. 1884– 1885: The Sino-French War led to the formation of French Indochina. 1885: King Leopold II of Belgium establishes the Congo Free State as a personal fiefdom. 1885: Britain establishes a protectorate over Bechuanaland (modern Botswana). 1885: Singer begins production of the ' Vibrating Shuttle'. which would become the Model T of sewing machines. 1886: " The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde" by Robert Louis Stevenson is published. 1886: Burma is presented to Queen Victoria as a birthday gift. 1886: Karl Benz sells the first commercial automobile. 1886: Construction of the Statue of Liberty; Coca-Cola is developed. 1886: Russian-Circassian War ended with the defeat and the exile of many Circassians. Imam Shamil defeated. 1887: The British Empire takes over Balochistan. 1887: Sir Arthur Conan Doyle publishes his first Sherlock Holmes story, . A Study in Scarlet 1888: Louis Le Prince records the , the earliest surviving Roundhay Garden Scene film. 1888: Jack the Ripper murders occur in Whitechapel, London. 1888: Slavery banned in Brazil. 1888: Founding of the shipping line (KPM) that supported the unification and development of the colonial economy. Koninklijke Paketvaart-Maatschappij [15 ] 1889: Eiffel Tower is inaugurated in Paris. 1889: Mirza Ghulam Ahmad establishes the Ahmadi Muslim Community. 1889: End of the Brazilian Empire and the beginning of the Brazilian Republic. 1889: Vincent van Gogh paints . Starry Night 1889: Aspirin patented.
First bus in history: a
truck modified by Netphener company (1895)
1890: The Wounded Knee Massacre was the last battle in the American Indian Wars. This event represents the end of the American Old West. 1890: Italy annexes Eritrea. 1890: Independence of Luxembourg. 1890: Death of Vincent van Gogh. 1890: The cardboard box is invented. 1891: 1891 Chilean Civil War. 1892: Basketball is invented. 1892: The World's Columbian Exposition was held in Chicago celebrating the 400th anniversary of Christopher Columbus's arrival in the New World. 1892: Fingerprinting is officially adopted for the first time. 1892: Tchaikovsky's premières in Nutcracker Suite St Petersberg. 1893: US forces overthrow the government of Hawaii. 1893: The Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organisation is formed. 1893: New Zealand becomes the first country to enact women's suffrage. 1893: The Coremans-de Vriendt law is passed in Belgium, creating legal equality for French and Dutch languages. 1894: First commercial film release by Jean Aimé Le Roy. [ ] citation needed 1894: First gramophone record. 1894: France and the Russian Empire form a military alliance. 1894– 1895: After the First Sino-Japanese War, China cedes Taiwan to Japan and grants Japan a free hand in Korea. 1894: Lombok War The Dutch looted and destroyed the Cakranegara palace of [15 ] Mataram. J. L. A. Brandes, a Dutch philologist discovered and secured [16 ] Nagarakretagama manuscript in Lombok royal library. 1895: Volleyball is invented. 1895: Trial of Oscar Wilde and premiere of his play . The Importance of Being Earnest 1895: French troops capture Antananarivo in Madagascar. 1895: Wilhelm Röntgen identifies x-rays. 1894– 1900: Dreyfuss Affair in France. 1895– 1896: Abyssinia defeats Italy in the First Italo–Ethiopian War. 1895– 1898: Cuban War for Independence results in Cuban independence from Spain. 1896: Olympic Games revived in Athens. 1896: Philippine Revolution ends declaring Philippines free from Spanish rule. 1896: Ethiopia defeated Italy at the Battle of Adwa. 1896: Klondike Gold Rush in Canada. 1896: Henri Becquerel discovers radioactivity; J. J. Thomson identifies the electron, though not by name. 1897: Gojong, or Emperor Gwangmu, proclaims the short-lived Korean Empire: lasts until 1910. 1897: Benin Expedition of 1897 loots and burns Benin. 1897: Greco-Turkish War. 1897: Bram Stoker writes Dracula. 1898: The United States gains control of Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines after the Spanish-American War. 1898: Empress Dowager Cixi of China engineers a coup d'état, marking the end of the Hundred Days' Reform; the Guangxu Emperor is arrested. 1898: H. G. Wells publishes The War of the Worlds 1898– 1900: The Boxer Rebellion in China is suppressed by an Eight-Nation Alliance. 1898– 1902: The Thousand Days' War in Colombia breaks out between the " Liberales" and " Conservadores", culminating with the loss of Panama in 1903. 1898: General van Heutz becomes chief of staff of Aceh campaign. Wilhelmina becomes queen of the Netherlands. [15 ] 1899: Second Boer War begins (-1902); Philippine-American War begins (-1913). 1899– 1900: Indian famine kills over 1 million people. Significant people [edit ] Alexander II, Emperor of Russia, King of Poland Clara Barton, nurse, pioneer of the American Red Cross Sitting Bull, a leader of the Lakota John Burroughs, Naturalist, conservationist, writer Benito Juárez, Mexican President Davy Crockett, King of the wild frontier, folk hero, frontiersman, soldier and politician Jefferson Davis, Confederate States President William Gilbert Grace, English cricketer Baron Haussmann, civic planner Franz Joseph I of Austria, Emperor of Austria and brother of Mexican Emperor Chief Joseph, a leader of the Nez Percé Ned Kelly, Australian folk hero, and outlaw Elizabeth Kenny, Australian Nurse and found an Innovative Treatment of Polio Sándor Körösi Csoma, explorer of the Tibetan culture Abraham Lincoln, United States President Fitz Hugh Ludlow, writer and explorer John Muir, Naturalist, writer, preservationist Florence Nightingale, nursing pioneer Ranjit Singh, Maharaja of the Sikh Empire Napoleon I, First Consul and Emperor of the French Charles Stewart Parnell, Irish political leader Commodore Perry, U.S. Naval commander, opened the door to Japan José Rizal, Filipino polymath, physician, nationalist, novelist, poet, liberator Sacagawea, Important aide to Lewis&Clark Giuseppe Garibaldi, was an Italian general and politician, a central figure in the Italian Risorgimento Ignaz Semmelweis, proponent of hygienic practices Dr. John Snow, the founder of epidemiology F R Spofforth, Australian cricketer Queen Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom William Wilberforce, Abolitionist, Philanthropist Hong Xiuquan inspired China's Taiping Rebellion, perhaps the bloodiest civil war in human history Karl Marx wrote The Communist Manifesto, promoted change in the labor system of Europe Nikola Karev commander and leader of the Ilinden Uprising in Ottoman-Macedonia. Show business and theatre [edit ] P. T. Barnum, showman David Belasco, actor, playwright, theatrical producer Sarah Bernhardt, actress Edwin Booth, actor Dion Boucicault, playwright Mrs Patrick Campbell, actress Anton Chekhov, playwright Buffalo Bill Cody, Wild West legend, and showman Baptiste Deburau, Bohemian–French actor and mime. Sergei Diaghilev, art critic, ballet impresario, founder of Mir Iskusstva and Ballets Russes Eleonora Duse, actress Henrik Ibsen, playwright Edmund Kean, actor Charles Kean, actor Olga Knipper, actress Lillie Langtry, actress, socialite Frédérick Lemaître, actor Jenny Lind, opera singer called the Swedish Nightingale Céleste Mogador, dancer Lola Montez, exotic dancer Adelaide Neilson, actress Vladimir Nemirovich-Danchenko, playwright, theatre director, co-founder of Moscow Art Theatre Annie Oakley, Wild West, sharp-shooter Alexander Ostrovsky, playwright Lillian Russell, singer, actress George Bernard Shaw, playwright Mikhail Shchepkin, actor Constantin Stanislavski, actor, theatre director, co-founder of Moscow Art Theatre Edward Askew Sothern, actor Ellen Terry, actress Maria Yermolova, actress Athletics [edit ] Cap Anson, baseball player Gentleman Jim Corbett, heavyweight boxer Big Ed Delahanty, baseball player Bob Fitzsimmons, heavyweight boxer Pud Galvin, baseball player Dr William Gilbert 'WG' Grace, cricketer Peter Jackson, heavyweight boxer James J. Jeffries, heavyweight boxer Ivan Poddubny, wrestler Old Hoss Radbourn, baseball player Tom Sharkey, heavyweight boxer John L. Sullivan, heavyweight boxer John Montgomery Ward, baseball player Evangelis Zappas, Founder of the International Modern Olympic Games Business [edit ] John Jacob Astor III, Real Estate Andrew Carnegie, Industrialist, philanthropist Jay Cooke, Finance Henry Clay Frick, Industrialist, art collector Jay Gould, Railroad developer Meyer Guggenheim Family patriarch, mining Daniel Guggenheim (copper) E. H. Harriman, Railroads Henry O. Havemeyer (sugar), art collector George Hearst, Gold James J. Hill (railroads) – The Empire Builder Savva Mamontov, Industrialist, philanthropist Andrew W. Mellon, Industrialist, philanthropist, art collector J.P. Morgan, Banker, art collector Savva Morozov, Businessman and philanthropist George Mortimer Pullman (railroads) Ludvig Nobel, Oil Charles Pratt Oil, founder of the Pratt Institute Cecil Rhodes diamonds, mining magnate, founder of De Beers. John D. Rockefeller, Oil, Business tycoon, philanthropist Levi Strauss, clothing manufacturer Pavel Tretyakov, Businessman, art collector, philanthropist, founder of Tretyakov Gallery Cornelius Vanderbilt, Shipping, Railroads Nikolay Vtorov, Industrialist, banker, richest man in Russian Empire. William Chapman Ralston, Businessman, Financier, founder of Bank of California. Famous and infamous personalities [edit ] William Bonney aka Henry McCarty aka Billy the Kid, Wild West, outlaw John Wilkes Booth, assassin James Bowie, Soldier, Texan who died at the Alamo, invented the Bowie knife Jim Bridger, Wild West, Mountain man John Brown, a fanatical abolitionist who led an armed insurrection at Harpers Ferry, Virginia, in 1859. Kit Carson, Wild West, frontiersman Cochise, Chiricahua Apache leader George Armstrong Custer, soldier, whose last stand was in the Wild West Wyatt Earp, Wild West, lawman Pat Garrett, Wild West, lawman Charles J. Guiteau, assassin Jack The Ripper, serial killer whose identity remains unknown. H.H. Holmes, First documented American serial killer. Geronimo, Chiricahua Apache leader Wild Bill Hickock, Legendary Wild West, lawman Doc Holliday, Legendary Wild West, gambler, gunfighter Crazy Horse, War leader of the Lakota Ignacy Hryniewiecki, assassin of Tsar Alexander II of Russia Frank James, Wild West, outlaw, older brother of Jesse Jesse James, Legendary Wild West, outlaw Calamity Jane, Frontierswoman Bat Masterson, Wild West, lawman, gambler, newspaperman Allan Pinkerton, spy, founded the Pinkerton Agency, first detective agency in the United States William Poole aka Bill the Butcher, member of the New York City gang, the Bowery Boys, a bare-knuckle boxer, and a leader of the Know Nothing political movement. Belle Starr Legendary Wild West, female outlaw Nat Turner, led a slave rebellion in Southampton County, Virginia during August 1831. Anthropology, archaeology, scholars [edit ] Churchill Babington, Archaeology Adolph Francis Alphonse Bandelier, Archaeology Franz Boas, Anthropology Charles Étienne Brasseur de Bourbourg, Archaeology Louis Agassiz Fuertes, Ornithology George Bird Grinnell, Anthropology Joseph LeConte, Scholar, preservationist Nicholai Miklukho-Maklai, Anthropology Clinton Hart Merriam, Zoology Lewis H. Morgan, Anthropology Jules Etienne Joseph Quicherat, Archaeology Robert Ridgway, Ornithology Edward Burnett Tylor, Anthropology Karl Verner, Linguist Journalists, missionaries, explorers [edit ] Roald Amundsen, explorer Samuel Baker, explorer Thomas Baines, artist, explorer Heinrich Barth, explorer Henry Walter Bates, naturalist, explorer Faddey Bellingshausen, explorer Jim Bridger, explorer Richard Francis Burton, explorer The Lewis&Clark expedition, exploration Frederick Samuel Dellenbaugh, explorer Percy Fawcett, adventurer, explorer, proto- Indiana Jones Vladimir Gilyarovsky, journalist Horace Greeley, journalist Peter Jones (missionary), Canadian Methodist minister, and go-between between Christians and his fellow Mississaugas and other Indian tribes. Adoniram Judson, missionary Sir John Kirk, explorer, physician, companion of David Livingston Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker, botanist, explorer, friend of Charles Darwin Sir William Jackson Hooker, botanist, explorer, father of Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker Otto von Kotzebue, explorer Pyotr Kozlov, explorer Mikhail Lazarev, fleet commander, explorer Meriwether Lewis, explorer David Livingstone, missionary Stepan Makarov, explorer, oceanographer Thomas Nast, journalist, caricaturist and editorial cartoonist Robert Peary, explorer Marcelo H. del Pilar, writer, journalist, editor of . La Solidaridad Nikolai Przhevalsky, explorer Frederick Selous, explorer Pyotr Semyonov-Tyan-Shansky, explorer, geographer John Hanning Speke, explorer Henry M. Stanley, journalist, explorer John McDouall Stuart, explorer John L. O'Sullivan, journalist who coined Manifest Destiny Chokan Valikhanov, explorer ethnographer, historian Ferdinand von Wrangel, explorer Photography [edit ] Ottomar Anschütz, chronophotographer Mathew Brady, documented the American Civil War Edward S. Curtis, documented the American West notably Native Americans Louis Daguerre, inventor of daguerreotype process of photography, chemist Thomas Eakins, pioneer motion photographer George Eastman, inventor of roll film Hércules Florence, pioneer inventor of photography Auguste and Louis Lumière, pioneer filmmakers, inventors Étienne-Jules Marey, pioneer motion photographer, chronophotographer Eadweard Muybridge, pioneer motion photographer, chronophotographer Nadar aka Gaspard-Félix Tournachon, portrait photographer Nicéphore Niépce, pioneer inventor of photography Louis Le Prince, motion picture inventor and pioneer filmmaker Sergey Prokudin-Gorsky, chemist and photographer William Fox Talbot, inventor of the negative / positive photographic process. Visual artists, painters, sculptors [edit ]
Realism and Romanticism of the early 19th century gave way to Impressionism and Post-Impressionism in the later half of the century, with Paris being the dominant art capital of the world. In the United States the Hudson River School was prominent. 19th-century painters included: Music [edit ] Sonata form matured during the Classical era to become the primary form of instrumental compositions throughout the 19th century. Much of the music from the 19th century was referred to as being in the Romantic style. Many great composers lived through this era such as Ludwig van Beethoven, Franz Liszt, Frédéric Chopin, Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky and Richard Wagner. The list includes: Literature [edit ]
On the literary front the new century opens with
romanticism, a movement that spread throughout Europe in reaction to 18th-century rationalism, and it develops more or less along the lines of the Industrial Revolution, with a design to react against the dramatic changes wrought on nature by the steam engine and the railway. William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge are considered the initiators of the new school in England, while in the continent the German spreads its influence as far as Italy and Spain. Sturm und Drang
French arts had been hampered by the
Napoleonic Wars but subsequently developed rapidly. Modernism began.
The Goncourts and
Émile Zola in France and Giovanni Verga in Italy produce some of the finest naturalist novels. Italian naturalist novels are especially important in that they give a social map of the new unified Italy to a people that until then had been scarcely aware of its ethnic and cultural diversity. On February 21, 1848, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels published the Communist Manifesto.
There was a huge literary output during the 19th century. Some of the most famous writers included the Russians
Alexander Pushkin, Nikolai Gogol, Leo Tolstoy, Anton Chekhov and Fyodor Dostoevsky; the English Charles Dickens, John Keats, Alfred Lord Tennyson and Jane Austen; the Scottish Sir Walter Scott; the Irish Oscar Wilde; the Americans Edgar Allan Poe, Ralph Waldo Emerson, and Mark Twain; and the French Victor Hugo, Honoré de Balzac, Jules Verne, Alexandre Dumas and Charles Baudelaire. Some other important writers of note included: Science [edit ]
The 19th century saw the birth of science as a profession; the term
scientist was coined in 1833 by William Whewell. Among the most influential ideas of the 19th century were those of [17 ] Charles Darwin, who in 1859 published the book , which introduced the idea of The Origin of Species evolution by natural selection. Dmitri Mendeleev created the first periodic table of elements. Louis Pasteur made the first vaccine against rabies, and also made many discoveries in the field of chemistry, including the asymmetry of crystals. Thomas Alva Edison gave the world a practical everyday lightbulb. Nikola Tesla pioneered the induction motor, high frequency transmission of electricity, and remote control. Karl Weierstrass and other mathematicians also carried out the arithmetization of analysis for functions of real and complex variables; they also began the use of hypercomplex numbers. But the most important step in science at this time was the ideas formulated by Michael Faraday and James Clerk Maxwell. Their work changed the face of physics and made possible for new technology to come about. The list of important 19th century scientists includes: Amedeo Avogadro, physicist Johann Jakob Balmer, mathematician, physicist Henri Becquerel, physicist Alexander Graham Bell, inventor Ludwig Boltzmann, physicist János Bolyai, mathematician Louis Braille, inventor of braille Robert Bunsen, chemist Marie Curie, physicist, chemist Pierre Curie, physicist Gottlieb Daimler, engineer, industrial designer and industrialist Charles Darwin, biologist Christian Doppler, physicist, mathematician Thomas Edison, inventor Michael Faraday, scientist Léon Foucault, physicist Gottlob Frege, mathematician, logician and philosopher Sigmund Freud, the father of psychoanalysis Carl Friedrich Gauss, mathematician, physicist, astronomer Francis Galton, English Victorian polymath Josiah Willard Gibbs, physicist Ernst Haeckel, biologist William Rowan Hamilton, physicist and mathematician Oliver Heaviside, electrical engineer, physical mathematician Heinrich Hertz, physicist Alexander von Humboldt, naturalist, explorer Robert Koch, physician, bacteriologist Justus von Liebig, chemist Nikolai Lobachevsky, mathematician James Clerk Maxwell, physicist Wilhelm Maybach, car-engine and automobile designer and industrialist Ilya Mechnikov, biologist Gregor Mendel, biologist Dmitri Mendeleev, chemist Samuel Morey, inventor Alfred Nobel, chemist, engineer, inventor Louis Pasteur, microbiologist and chemist Ivan Pavlov, physiologist Santiago Ramón y Cajal, biologist Franz Reuleaux mechanical engineer Bernhard Riemann, mathematician William Emerson Ritter, biologist Vladimir Shukhov, inventor Nikola Tesla, inventor William Thomson, Lord Kelvin, physicist Thomas Young, English polymath. Philosophy and religion [edit ]
The 19th century was host to a variety of religious and philosophical thinkers, including:
Mirza Ghulam Ahmad founded the Ahmadiyya Islamic movement in India. Bahá'u'lláh founded the Bahá'í Faith in Persia Mikhail Bakunin, anarchist William Booth, social reformer, founder of the Salvation Army Auguste Comte, philosopher Mary Baker Eddy, religious leader, founder of Christian Science Friedrich Engels, political philosopher Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, philosopher Allan Kardec, sistematizer of the Spiritist Doctrine Søren Kierkegaard, philosopher Peter Kropotkin, anarchist Karl Marx, political philosopher Pierre Joseph Proudhon, Mutualist anarchist John Stuart Mill, philosopher Krste Petkov Misirkov, philosopher and historian William Morris, social reformer Friedrich Nietzsche, philosopher Nikolai (Nicholas) of Japan, religious leader, introduced Eastern Orthodoxy into Japan Ramakrishna Paramahamsa, Hindu mystic Claude Henri de Rouvroy, Comte de Saint-Simon, founder of French socialism Arthur Schopenhauer, philosopher Joseph Smith, Jr. and Brigham Young, founders of Mormonism Vladimir Solovyov, philosopher Herbert Spencer, "The Great philosopher" Leo Tolstoy, anarchist Ayya Vaikundar, initiator of the belief system of Ayyavazhi Ellen White religious author and co-founder of the Seventh-day Adventist Church Politics and the Military [edit ] John Adams, American statesman, lawyer, and president John Quincy Adams, U.S. congressman, lawyer, and president Alexander I of Russia Alexander III of Russia Susan B. Anthony, U.S. women's rights advocate Pyotr Bagration, Russian general Otto von Bismarck, German chancellor Napoleon Bonaparte, French general, first consul and emperor John C. Calhoun, U.S. senator Henry Clay, U.S. statesman, "The Great Compromiser" Jefferson Davis, President of the Confederate States of America just before and during the American Civil War. Benjamin Disraeli, novelist and politician Frederick Douglass, U.S. abolitionist spokesman Ferdinand VII of Spain Joseph Fouché, French politician John C. Frémont, Explorer, Governor of California Giuseppe Garibaldi, unifier of Italy and Piedmontese soldier Alexander Gorchakov, Russian Chancellor Isabella II of Spain Gojong of Joseon, Korean emperor William Lloyd Garrison, U.S. abolitionist leader Mikhail Loris-Melikov, Russian statesman William Ewart Gladstone, British prime minister Ulysses S. Grant, U.S. general and president George Hearst, U.S. Senator and father of William Randolph Hearst Theodor Herzl, founder of modern political Zionism Andrew Jackson, U.S. general and president Thomas Jefferson, American statesman, philosopher, and president Ioannis Kapodistrias, Russian and Greek statesman Lajos Kossuth, Hungarian governor; leader of the war of independence Mikhail Kutuzov, Russian general Robert E. Lee, Confederate general Libertadores, Latin American liberators Abraham Lincoln, U.S. president; led the nation during the American Civil War Sir John A. Macdonald, Canada, first Prime Minister of Canada Klemens von Metternich, Austrian Chancellor Mutsuhito, Japanese emperor Pavel Nakhimov, Russian admiral Napoleon III Karl Nesselrode, Russian Chancellor Nicholas I of Russia Pedro II of Brazil Cecil Rhodes Theodore Roosevelt, Explorer, Naturalist, future President of The United States William Tecumseh Sherman, Union general during the American Civil War Fulwar Skipwith, the first and only president of the short lived Republic of West Florida Mikhail Skobelev, Russian general Leland Stanford, Governor of California, U.S. Senator, entrepreneur István Széchenyi, aristocrat, leader of the Hungarian reform movement Charles Maurice de Talleyrand, French politician Harriet Tubman, African-American abolitionist, humanitarian, played a part in the Underground Railroad William M. Tweed, aka Boss Tweed, influential New York City politician, head of Tammany Hall Abdülmecid I, 31st Sultan and 110th Caliph of Islam of the Ottoman Empire Queen Victoria, British monarch Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, British General and prime minister Sergei Witte, Russian statesman Hong Xiuquan, revolutionary, self-proclaimed Son of God Aleksey Yermolov, Russian general Tokugawa Yoshinobu, Japanese Shogun (The Last Shogun) See also [edit ] Supplementary portrait gallery [edit ] References [edit ] ^ See Qing Dynasty; By 1900, mass civil disorder had begun and continuously grown till their ultimate downfall in 1911. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica's Great Inventions. Encyclopædia Britannica. ^ "The United States and the Industrial Revolution in the 19th Century". Americanhistory.about.com. 2012-09-18 . Retrieved 2012-10-31. ^ Laura Del Col, West Virginia University, The Life of the Industrial Worker in Nineteenth-Century England ^ Modernization – Population Change. Encyclopædia Britannica. ^ Liberalism in the 19th century. Encyclopædia Britannica. ^ Sailing against slavery. By Jo Loosemore. BBC. ^ The Atlantic: Can the US afford immigration?. Migration News. December 1996. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica: Herman Willem Daendels  Access date 29 March 2009 ^ Oppenheimer, Clive (2003). "Climatic, environmental and human consequences of the largest known historic eruption: Tambora volcano (Indonesia) 1815". Progress in Physical Geography 27 (2): 230–259. doi: 10.1191/0309133303pp379ra. ^ Spring Hermann (1997) " ". Enslow Publishers. p.26 Geronimo: Apache freedom fighter ISBN 0-89490-864-2 ^ " ". John Huddleston (2002). Killing ground: photographs of the Civil War and the changing American landscape Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-6773-8 ^ Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. ^ Hamdani, Sylviana (3 February 2010). "Taking a Train Trip Down Memory Lane in Indonesia". Jakarta Globe . Retrieved 3 February 2010. ^ a b c d e Vickers (2005), page xii ^ Wahyu Ernawati: "Chapter 8: The Lombok Treasure", in Colonial collections Revisited: Pieter ter Keurs (editor) Vol. 152, CNWS publications. Issue 36 of Mededelingen van het Rijksmuseum voor Volkenkunde, Leiden. CNWS Publications, 2007. ISBN 978-90-5789-152-6. 296 pages. pp. 186–203 ^ "William Whewell". Stanford University . Retrieved 2008-03-03. External links [edit ] Media related to 19th century at Wikimedia Commons