1992 Summer Olympics

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - View original article

Games of the XXV Olympiad
1992 Summer Olympics logo.svg
Host cityBarcelona, Spain
MottoAmigos Para Siempre (Spanish)
Amics Per Sempre (Catalan)
(Friends Forever)
Nations participating169
Athletes participating9,356 (6,652 men, 2,704 women)
Events257 in 25 sports
Opening ceremonyJuly 25
Closing ceremonyAugust 9
Officially opened byKing Juan Carlos I
Athlete's OathLuis Doreste Blanco
Judge's OathEugeni Asensio
Olympic TorchAntonio Rebollo (paralympic archer)
StadiumEstadi Olímpic Lluís Companys
 
Jump to: navigation, search
Games of the XXV Olympiad
1992 Summer Olympics logo.svg
Host cityBarcelona, Spain
MottoAmigos Para Siempre (Spanish)
Amics Per Sempre (Catalan)
(Friends Forever)
Nations participating169
Athletes participating9,356 (6,652 men, 2,704 women)
Events257 in 25 sports
Opening ceremonyJuly 25
Closing ceremonyAugust 9
Officially opened byKing Juan Carlos I
Athlete's OathLuis Doreste Blanco
Judge's OathEugeni Asensio
Olympic TorchAntonio Rebollo (paralympic archer)
StadiumEstadi Olímpic Lluís Companys

The 1992 Summer Olympic Games, officially known as the Games of the XXV Olympiad, were an international multi-sport event celebrated in Barcelona, Spain, in 1992. The International Olympic Committee voted in 1986 to separate the Summer and Winter Games, which had been held in the same year since 1924, and place them in alternating even-numbered years, beginning in 1994. The 1992 Summer Games were the last to be staged in the same year as the Winter Games.[1] Due to the end of the Cold War, these games were the first without boycotts since 1972.[2] In fact the Olympics was the final success of the former Soviet Union (despite only part of it taking part), and biggest of the "Olympic flag" (Nations from the former USSR competed as the Unified Team, coming 1st in the overall rankings).[3]

Host city selection[edit]

Barcelona, the birthplace of then-IOC president Juan Antonio Samaranch and the second largest city of Spain, was selected over Amsterdam, Belgrade, Birmingham, Brisbane and Paris in Lausanne, Switzerland, on October 17, 1986, during the 91st IOC Session.[4] It had bid for the 1936 Summer Olympics, losing out to Berlin.

1992 Summer Olympics bidding results[5]
CityNOC NameRound 1Round 2Round 3
Barcelona Spain293747
Paris France192023
Brisbane Australia11910
Belgrade Yugoslavia13115
Birmingham Great Britain88
Amsterdam Netherlands5

Highlights[edit]

The 1992 Summer Olympics allowed NBA players to participate in the basketball competition for the first time; here David Robinson shoots a free throw for the gold-medal winning United States "Dream Team".

Venues[edit]

Estadi Olímpic de Montjuïc
Palau Sant Jordi and Montjuïc Communications Tower

Medals awarded[edit]

The 1992 Summer Olympic programme featured 257 events in the following 25 sports:

Demonstration sports[edit]

Calendar[edit]

All times are in Central European Summer Time (UTC+2)
 ● Opening ceremony   Event competitions ● Event finals ● Closing ceremony
DateJulyAugust
24th
Fri
25th
Sat
26th
Sun
27th
Mon
28th
Tue
29th
Wed
30th
Thu
31st
Fri
1st
Sat
2nd
Sun
3rd
Mon
4th
Tue
5th
Wed
6th
Thu
7th
Fri
8th
Sat
9th
Sun
Archery
Athletics







Badminton
Baseball
Basketball
Boxing

Canoeing

Cycling
Diving
Equestrian● ●
Fencing
Field hockey
Football
Gymnastics

Handball
Judo● ●● ●● ●● ●● ●● ●● ●
Modern pentathlon
Rowing
● ●
● ● ●
● ● ●
● ● ●
Sailing
Shooting
Swimming





Synchronized swimming
Table tennis
Tennis
Volleyball
Water polo
Weightlifting
Wrestling





Total gold medals91214171919223018111212223010
Ceremonies
Date24th
Fri
25th
Sat
26th
Sun
27th
Mon
28th
Tue
29th
Wed
30th
Thu
31st
Fri
1st
Sat
2nd
Sun
3rd
Mon
4th
Tue
5th
Wed
6th
Thu
7th
Fri
8th
Sat
9th
Sun
JulyAugust

Participating National Olympic Committees[edit]

Participants
Participating countries by number of competitors

169 nations sent athletes to compete in these Games (the number of competitors for each country below is given in brackets). With the dissolution of the Soviet Union, twelve states formed a Unified Team, while the Baltic States of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania had their own teams. For the first time, Croatia, Slovenia and Bosnia-Herzegovina competed as independent nations after separation from Socialist Yugoslavia. Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was banned due to UN sanctions, but individual Yugoslav athletes were allowed to take part as Independent Olympic Participants. It was also the first Olympics since 1964 that a unified Germany competed at the Olympics. This was the Olympic debut for Namibia and the unified team of Yemen, after several separate participations of North and South Yemen. South Africa returned to the Games after 32 years. Four National Olympic Committees didn't send their athletes to compete: Afghanistan, Brunei, Liberia and Somalia.

Participating National Olympic Committees

Medal count[edit]

These are the top ten nations that won medals at the 1992 Games. Host nation highlighted.

RankNationGoldSilverBronzeTotal
1 Unified Team453829112
2 United States373437108
3 Germany33212882
4 China16221654
5 Cuba1461131
6 Spain137222
7 South Korea1251229
8 Hungary1112730
9 France851629
10 Australia791127

Broadcasting rights[edit]

The games were covered by the following broadcasters:[17]

Effect on the city[edit]

Frank Gehry's Fish sculpture in front of the Hotel Arts (left) and the Torre Mapfre (right) in the Olympic Village neighbourhood

The celebration of the 1992 Olympic Games had an enormous impact on the urbanism and external projection of the city of Barcelona. The Games enabled billions in infrastructure investments that are considered to have improved the quality of life and attraction of the city for investments and tourism,[18] making Barcelona one of the most visited cities in Europe after Paris, London and Rome.[19][20]

The nomination of the city as organizer was the spark that led to the application of a previously elaborated ambitious urban plan.[21] Barcelona was opened to the sea with the construction of the Olympic Village and Olympic Port in Poblenou, a decayed neighbourhood. Various new centres were created, and modern sports facilities were built in the Olympic zones of Montjuïc, Diagonal, and Vall d'Hebron. The construction of ring roads around the city helped reduce the density of the traffic, and El Prat airport was modernized and expanded as two new terminals were opened. New hotels were built and some old ones were refurbished.[22]

Cost and cost overrun[edit]

The cost of the Barcelona Summer Olympics was USD11.4 billion (in 2009 dollars). The cost overrun was 417 percent in real terms. This compares with an average cost of USD5.7 billion (in 2009 dollars) for other summer Olympics over the past 50 years for which data are available and an average cost overrun for these Games of 252 per cent. Cost here includes only sports-related costs and thus does not include other public costs, such as road, rail, or airport infrastructure, or private costs, such as hotel upgrades or other business investments incurred in preparation of the Games, which are typically substantial but which vary drastically from city to city and are difficult to compare consistently.[23]

Songs and themes[edit]

There were two main musical themes for the 1992 Games. One was "Barcelona", composed five years earlier by Freddie Mercury and sung as a duet with Montserrat Caballé. The duo were to perform the song during the opening ceremony, but due to Mercury's untimely death eight months earlier, the recording of the song was played over a travelogue of the city at the start of the opening ceremony.[24] The other was "Amigos Para Siempre" (Friends for Life), written by Andrew Lloyd Webber and Don Black, and sung by Sarah Brightman and José Carreras during the closing ceremonies.

Ryuichi Sakamoto composed and conducted the opening ceremony musical score.[25]

Opening Olympic fanfare composed by Angelo Badalamenti and orchestrations by Joseph Turrin.

Mascot[edit]

The official mascot was Cobi, a Catalan sheepdog in cubist style designed by Javier Mariscal.

Corporate image and identity[edit]

The Barcelona games established a renewal in regards of image treatment and corporate identity.[citation needed] It could be seen in the publication of posters, in the commemorative coins and stamps minted by the FNMT in Madrid and in the Barcelona 1992 Olympic Official Commemorative Medals designed and struck in Barcelona.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Albertville 1992". www.olympic.org. Archived from the original on 28 March 2010. Retrieved March 12, 2010. 
  2. ^ "Barcelona 1992 Summer Olympics | Olympic Videos, Photos, News". Olympic.org. Retrieved 2011-12-04. 
  3. ^ http://www.databaseolympics.com/games/gamesyear.htm?g=23
  4. ^ "IOC Vote History". Aldaver.com. Retrieved 2011-12-04. 
  5. ^ http://www.webcitation.org/5xFvf0ufx
  6. ^ http://hemeroteca.lavanguardia.com/preview/1992/07/27/pagina-36/33525453/pdf.html
  7. ^ "Ceremonial hall of shame". BBC News. 2000-09-15. Retrieved 2010-03-27. 
  8. ^ Official Report of the 1992 Summer Olympics, Vol. 4 (LA84Foundation.org). Note p. 70 (confirming arrow lit the gas above the cauldron).
  9. ^ "Barcelona 1992 Summer Olympics | Olympic Videos, Photos, News". Olympic.org. Retrieved 2011-12-04. 
  10. ^ Fermin Cacho Ruiz, Olympic.org. Retrieved 25 August 2013
  11. ^ "On the Bright Side". Sports Illustrated. 1996-07-30. Retrieved 2012-07-20. 
  12. ^ a b 1992 Olympics Official Report. Part IV (PDF). Retrieved October 24, 2012. "List of participants by NOC's and sport." 
  13. ^ Barcelona 1992 Opening Ceremony Parade of Nations 2/8 on YouTube
  14. ^ Barcelona 1992 Opening Ceremony Parade of Nations 1/8 on YouTube
  15. ^ Barcelona 1992 Opening Ceremony Parade of Nations 4/8 on YouTube
  16. ^ Barcelona 1992 Opening Ceremony Parade of Nations 6/8 on YouTube
  17. ^ Miquel de Moragas, Nancy Kay Rivenburgh, ed. (1995). Television in the Olympics : international research project (illustrated ed.). James F. Larson. pp. 257–260. ISBN 0861965388. Retrieved 27 April 2013. 
  18. ^ Brunet i Cid, Ferran. "The economic impact of the Barcelona Olympic Games 1986-2004". Autonomous University of Barcelona. Archived from the original on 2009-07-21. Retrieved 2009-06-22. 
  19. ^ Payne, Bob. "The Olympics Effect". msnbc.com. Retrieved 2009-06-22. 
  20. ^ Bremner, Caroline. "Top 150 City Destinations (2006)". Euromonitor. Archived from the original on 2009-09-04. Retrieved 2009-08-27. 
  21. ^ Brunet i Cid, Ferran. "An economic analysis of the Barcelona'92 Olympic Games:resources, financing and impact". Autonomous University of Barcelona. Retrieved 2009-06-22. 
  22. ^ Beard, Matthew (2011-03-22). "Lessons of Barcelona: 1992 Games provided model for London... and few warnings". London Evening Standard. Retrieved 2011-03-31. 
  23. ^ Flyvbjerg, Bent; Allison Stewart (2012). "Olympic Proportions: Cost and Cost Overrun at the Olympics 1960-2012". Working Paper. Saïd Business School, University of Oxford. 
  24. ^ "Barcelona 92: inicio de la ceremonia". YouTube. Retrieved 2011-03-23. 
  25. ^ Illness, Critical (2010-09-03). "Doreen D'Agostino Media » Ryuichi Sakamoto and Decca". Doreendagostinomedia.com. Retrieved 2011-03-23. 

References[edit]

External links[edit]

Preceded by
Seoul
Summer Olympic Games
Barcelona

XXV Olympiad (1992)
Succeeded by
Atlanta

Coordinates: 41°21′51″N 2°09′08″E / 41.36417°N 2.15222°E / 41.36417; 2.15222