Chicago Tylenol murders

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The Chicago Tylenol murders, codenamed TYMURS by the Federal Bureau of Investigation, were a series of intentional poisoning deaths in the Chicagoland area in 1982. The victims had all taken Tylenol branded acetaminophen capsules that had been laced with potassium cyanide.[1] The incidents led to reforms in the packaging of over-the-counter substances and to federal anti-tampering laws. The case remains unsolved and no suspects have been charged. A $100,000 reward offered by Johnson & Johnson, parent company of Tylenol maker McNeil Laboratories, for the capture and conviction of the "Tylenol Killer" has never been claimed.

The incidents[edit]

On the morning of September 29, 1982, twelve-year-old Mary Kellerman of Elk Grove Village, Illinois, died after taking a capsule of Extra-Strength Tylenol. Adam Janus of Arlington Heights, Illinois, died in the hospital shortly after. Adam's brother Stanley of Lisle, Illinois, and wife Theresa died after gathering to mourn his death, having taken pills from the same bottle. Soon afterward, Mary McFarland of Elmhurst, Illinois, Paula Prince of Chicago, and Mary Reiner of Winfield also died in similar incidents.[2][3] Investigators soon discovered the Tylenol link. Urgent warnings were broadcast, and police drove through Chicago neighborhoods issuing warnings over loudspeakers.

As the tampered-with bottles came from different factories, and the seven deaths had all occurred in the Chicago area, the possibility of sabotage during production was ruled out. Instead, the culprit was believed to have entered various supermarkets and drug stores over a period of several weeks, grabbed several bottles of Tylenol capsules from the shelves, removed them from the stores and took them to another location. Once there, the poisoner opened the bottles, took the capsules out, added the cyanide, then put the now-laced capsules back in the bottles and returned to the stores to place the bottles back on the shelves. In addition to the five bottles which led to the victims' deaths, three other tampered-with bottles were discovered.

Johnson & Johnson distributed warnings to hospitals and distributors and halted Tylenol production and advertising. On October 5, 1982, it issued a nationwide recall of Tylenol products; an estimated 31 million bottles were in circulation, with a retail value of over US $100 million.[4] The company also advertised in the national media for individuals not to consume any products that contained acetaminophen. When it was determined that only capsules were tampered with, Johnson & Johnson offered to exchange all Tylenol capsules already purchased by the public with solid tablets.

Suspects[edit]

During the initial investigations, a man named James William Lewis sent a letter to Johnson & Johnson demanding $1 million to stop the cyanide-induced murders. Police were unable to link him with the crimes, as he and his wife were living in New York City at the time. He was convicted of extortion, served 13 years of a 20-year sentence, and was released in 1995 on parole. WCVB Channel 5 of Boston reported that court documents, released in early 2009, "show Department of Justice investigators concluded Lewis was responsible for the poisonings, despite the fact that they did not have enough evidence to charge him". Lewis has denied responsibility for the poisonings for several years.[5][6]

A second man, Roger Arnold, was investigated and cleared of the killings. He had a nervous breakdown due to the media attention, which he blamed on Marty Sinclair, a bar owner. In the summer of 1983, Arnold shot and killed John Stanisha, whom he mistook for Sinclair. Stanisha was an unrelated man who did not know Arnold.[7] Arnold was convicted in January 1984 and served 15 years of a 30-year sentence for second-degree murder. He died in June 2008.

Laurie Dann, who poisoned and shot people in a May 1988 rampage in and around Winnetka, Illinois, was briefly considered as a suspect, but no direct connection was found.[8]

Alternative theory[edit]

In a book published in 2011,[9] Scott Bartz, a former Johnson & Johnson employee, argues that the poisoned Tylenol was introduced not, as the media reported, in retail stores but in a distributor's warehouse in the Chicago area. He believes that Johnson & Johnson knew this but intentionally suppressed evidence leading to this conclusion.[10]

In November of 2012 Bartz gave his second interview to investigative reporter Gary Franchi. The interview aired on Next News Network's WHDT World News, in it he made the case for his book. During the 25-minute interview he stated, "My research showed the tampering occurred within the distribution network for Tylenol and of course Johnson & Johnson, to avoid liability, would not want to be associated with distributing this Tylenol".[11]

On September 24, 2013, Michelle Rosen, daughter of victim Mary Reiner, appeared on WHDT to provide testimony of her mother's ingestion of the laced Tylenol.[12] According to Rosen, Mary Reiner had given birth 6 days prior and received her Tylenol from the hospital pharmacy. Bartz's investigation into Reiner's ingestion is believed, by Rosen, to be the "smoking gun" because she concluded the culprit presented by authorities could not have gained access to a secure hospital pharmacy.

Aftermath[edit]

The media gave Johnson & Johnson much positive coverage for its handling of the crisis; for example, an article in The Washington Post said, "Johnson & Johnson has effectively demonstrated how a major business ought to handle a disaster". The article further stated that "this is no Three Mile Island accident in which the company's response did more damage than the original incident", and applauded the company for being honest with the public.[13] In addition to issuing the recall, the company established relations with the Chicago Police Department, the FBI, and the Food and Drug Administration. This way it could have a part in searching for the person who laced the capsules and they could help prevent further tamperings.[14] While at the time of the scare the company's market share collapsed from thirty-five percent to eight percent, it rebounded in less than a year, a move credited to the company's prompt and aggressive reaction. In November, it reintroduced capsules but in a new, triple-sealed package, coupled with heavy price promotions and within several years, Tylenol had become the most popular over-the-counter analgesic in the U.S.[citation needed]

A number of copycat attacks involving Tylenol and other products also took place. In 1986, Excedrin capsules in Washington state were tampered with, resulting in the deaths of Susan Snow and Bruce Nickell from cyanide poisoning and the eventual arrest and conviction of Bruce's wife Stella of crimes connected to both deaths. That same year, Procter & Gamble's Encaprin was recalled after a spiking hoax in Chicago and Detroit that resulted in a precipitous sales drop and a withdrawal of the pain reliever from the market.

The 1982 incident inspired the pharmaceutical, food, and consumer product industries to develop tamper-resistant packaging, such as induction seals and improved quality control methods. Moreover, product tampering was made a federal crime.[15] The new laws resulted in Stella Nickell's conviction in the Excedrin tampering case, to which she was sentenced to ninety years in prison.

Additionally, the tragedy prompted the pharmaceutical industry to move away from capsules, which were easy to contaminate as a foreign substance could be placed inside without obvious signs of tampering. Within the year, the FDA introduced more stringent regulations to avoid product tampering. This led to the eventual replacement of the capsule with the solid "caplet", a tablet made in the shape of a capsule, as a drug delivery form and with the addition of tamper-evident safety-seals to bottles of many sorts.[citation needed]

Ongoing investigations[edit]

In early January 2009, Illinois authorities renewed the investigation. Federal agents searched the home of James Lewis in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and seized a number of items.[16] In Chicago, an FBI spokesman declined to comment but said "we'll have something to release later possibly".[17] Law enforcement officials have received a number of tips related to the case coinciding with its anniversary. In a written statement,[18] the FBI explained,

This review was prompted, in part, by the recent 25th anniversary of this crime and the resulting publicity. Further, given the many recent advances in forensic technology, it was only natural that a second look be taken at the case and recovered evidence.

In January 2010, both Lewis and his wife submitted DNA samples and fingerprints to authorities.[6] Lewis stated "if the FBI plays it fair, I have nothing to worry about".[6]

On May 19, 2011, the FBI requested DNA samples from "Unabomber" Ted Kaczynski in connection to the Tylenol murders. Kaczynski denied having ever possessed potassium cyanide. The investigation is still underway.[19] The first four Unabomber crimes happened in Chicago and its suburbs from 1978 to 1980, and Kaczynski's parents had a suburban Chicago home in Lombard, Illinois, in 1982, where he stayed occasionally.[20]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Douglas, John E.; Olshaker, Mark (1999). The Anatomy of Motive – he FBI's Legendary Mindhunter Explores the Key to Understanding and Catching Violent Criminals. New York City: Scribner. pp. 103–104. ISBN 0-684-84598-9. 
  2. ^ Douglas, 106.
  3. ^ Bell, Rachael. "The Tylenol Terrorist". Crime Library. truTV. 
  4. ^ Emsley, John. Molecules of Murder: Criminal Molecular and Classic Cases. Cambridge:Royal Society of Chemistry, 2008, p. 174.
  5. ^ "Feds Convinced Lewis Was Tylenol Killer". WCVB-TV. February 12, 2009. Retrieved May 12, 2009. 
  6. ^ a b c Lavoie, Denise (January 11, 2010). "Friend: Tylenol Suspect Submits DNA, Fingerprints". Associated Press (via ABC News). Retrieved March 7, 2010. [dead link]
  7. ^ "Tylenol Figure Is Convicted". Associated Press (via The New York Times). January 15, 1984. 
  8. ^ "Tragedy in Winnetka: The Answers Are Few". Milwaukee Sentinel. May 25, 1988. Retrieved December 30, 2009. 
  9. ^ Bartz, Scott (September 22, 2011). THE TYLENOL MAFIA: Marketing, Murder, and Johnson & Johnson. CreateSpace. 
  10. ^ "Former Tylenol Employee Claims Murders Were Inside Job". FOX Chicago News. 26 September 2011. 
  11. ^ "Tylenol Mafia Whistleblower Scott Bartz speaks with WHDT World News". YouTube. 2012-11-16. Retrieved 2013-09-30. 
  12. ^ "FBI to Make Announcement on Tylenol Murders #N3". YouTube. 2013-09-24. Retrieved 2013-09-30. 
  13. ^ Jerry Knight (October 11, 1982). "Tylenol's Maker Shows How to Respond to Crisis". The Washington Post. p. WB1. 
  14. ^ Kaplan, Tamara. "The Tylenol Crisis: How Effective Public Relations Saved Johnson & Johnson". The Pennsylvania State University. Retrieved February 12, 2010. 
  15. ^ United States Government Printing Office. "USCODE-2010-title18-partI-chap65-sec1365.pdf". United States Government Printing Office. Retrieved December 4, 2011. 
  16. ^ Saltzman, Jonathan (February 5, 2009), "Fatal Tampering Case Is Renewed", The Boston Globe 
  17. ^ "FBI Searches Home of Man Linked to Tylenol Deaths". Associated Press (via Fox News). February 4, 2009. Retrieved March 7, 2010. 
  18. ^ Fifis, Fran (February 5, 2009). "Law Enforcement To Review Tylenol Murders". CNN. Retrieved March 7, 2010. 
  19. ^ Woolner, Ann (May 19, 2011). "FBI Wants Unabomber’s DNA for 1982 Tylenol Poisoning Probe". Bloomberg News. Retrieved May 19, 2011. 
  20. ^ "FBI wants to test Unabomber DNA in Tylenol killings". 

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