1970 FIFA World Cup

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1970 FIFA World Cup
Mexico 70

1970 FIFA World Cup official logo
Tournament details
Host country Mexico
Dates31 May – 21 June
Teams16 (from 5 confederations)
Venue(s)(in 5 host cities)
Final positions
Champions Brazil (3rd title)
Runners-up Italy
Third place West Germany
Fourth place Uruguay
Tournament statistics
Matches played32
Goals scored95 (2.97 per match)
Attendance1,603,975 (50,124 per match)
Top scorer(s)West Germany Gerd Müller (10 goals)
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1970 FIFA World Cup
Mexico 70

1970 FIFA World Cup official logo
Tournament details
Host country Mexico
Dates31 May – 21 June
Teams16 (from 5 confederations)
Venue(s)(in 5 host cities)
Final positions
Champions Brazil (3rd title)
Runners-up Italy
Third place West Germany
Fourth place Uruguay
Tournament statistics
Matches played32
Goals scored95 (2.97 per match)
Attendance1,603,975 (50,124 per match)
Top scorer(s)West Germany Gerd Müller (10 goals)

The 1970 FIFA World Cup, the ninth staging of the World Cup, was held in Mexico, from 31 May to 21 June. The 1970 tournament was the first World Cup hosted in North America, and the first held outside South America and Europe. In a match-up of two-time World Cup champions, the final was won by Brazil, who beat Italy 4–1. With their third World Cup triumph, Brazil were allowed to keep the Jules Rimet Trophy permanently.

The Brazilian team, led by Carlos Alberto, and featuring Pelé, Clodoaldo, Gérson, Jairzinho, Rivelino, and Tostão, is often regarded as the greatest World Cup team ever.[1][2][3][4][5][6] They won all of their 6 games on the way to the title, and had also won all of their 6 qualifying games on their way to Mexico. This tournament saw the return of free-flowing, attacking play after the physical battles of 1962 and 1966, and is considered by many to be the finest World Cup in history.[7][8]


Host selection

Mexico was chosen as the host nation by FIFA in Tokyo, Japan on 8 October 1964, over opposition from Argentina.


  Countries qualified for World Cup
  Country failed to qualify
  Countries that did not enter World Cup
  Country not a FIFA member

A total of 75 teams entered the qualifying tournament. Those who failed to qualify included France, Portugal, Hungary, Argentina and Spain. Meanwhile, Morocco became the first African nation to reach the World Cup finals since Egypt in 1934. In addition to Morocco, Israel and El Salvador made their World Cup debuts. As of 2010, this is Israel's only World Cup finals appearance. Peru qualified for the first time, having made one previous appearance in the 1930 tournament (which did not require qualification). Romania qualified for the first time since 1938, and would not qualify again until 1990.


The format of the competition was similar to that of 1966: 16 teams qualified, divided into four groups of four playing each other once in a round-robin tournament format. There were no seeds, instead the organizers formed geographical ‘sections’ from which the four groups were drawn in Mexico City, on 10 January 1970.[9] The top two teams in each group advanced to the quarter-finals. However, for the first time in the World Cup finals, teams level on points at the end of the group stage were separated by goal difference rather than goal average (which had been used in 1962 and 1966). If points and goal difference were both equal, lots would have been drawn. If a quarter-final or semi-final match resulted in a draw after extra time the referee would have drawn the name of the team to progress to the next round out of a hat. The final would have been replayed if drawn after extra time.

Sweden became the first country to be eliminated from a World Cup on goal difference when Uruguay progressed from group 2 in second place.


First round

The 1970 World Cup is now remembered as a classic – but, as usual, the tournament was preceded by disputes over the organisation of the event. This World Cup was the first one to be televised in colour. However, to fit into the European viewing schedules, some matches kicked off at noon. This was an unpopular decision with many players and managers because of the intense heat in Mexico at that time of day.[citation needed]

Telstar, the official 1970 FIFA World Cup ball.

Controversy surrounded the World Cup before a ball was even kicked. El Salvador qualified for the finals after beating Honduras in a play-off match, which led to the four-day Football War of July 1969.[10] For England, the build-up to the tournament took a bizarre turn when their captain was accused of theft while the English team was in Colombia for a pre-tournament friendly game. Bobby Moore was arrested for allegedly stealing a bracelet from a jeweller's shop in the Bogotá Bracelet incident. He was released on bail to allow him to appear in the World Cup finals, and the charges were later quietly dropped.[citation needed]

In Group 1, hosts Mexico lived up to the expectations of an entire nation by advancing along with the Soviet Union. This was the first time in seven World Cup tournaments that Mexico had progressed from the initial stage.[citation needed]

Group 2 of the opening round produced just six goals in six games as Uruguay, reigning South America champions, and the reigning European champions, Italy, prevailed over Sweden and surprise qualifier Israel after a series of dull, uninspired games. Italy would, however, show the true measure of its talent in the knock-out phase.[citation needed]

Group 3 featured both two-time former World champion Brazil, defending world champions England and solid European sides Czechoslovakia and Romania. In the rematch of the 1962 World Cup final, Brazil fell behind early in their opening game against Czechoslovakia, but fought back strongly and eventually won 4–1. Pelé scored one of their goals, but a goal attempt in which Pelé audaciously attempted to lob a shot over Czechoslovak goalkeeper Ivo Viktor from the halfway line, missed the goal by a whisker. The "Clash of the Champions" between Brazil and England lived up to all expectations. The match is best remembered for a Pelé near-miss. His powerful close-range downward header was kept out by an amazing save from Gordon Banks, who somehow managed to get down to the ball and flick it upwards and over the bar. In the end, a single Jairzinho goal was enough to win the game for Brazil. Romania ran Brazil close in their third game, but were finally beaten 3–2. England joined Brazil with two 1–0 victories over Romania and Czechoslovakia.[citation needed]

The official 1970 FIFA World Cup poster.

In Group 4, Peru and its attacking style created a sensation by beating established side Bulgaria 3–2 after trailing 0–2 at halftime. Morocco also got off to a bright start, taking the lead against West Germany in their first match, but the Germans came back to win 2–1. West Germany also went behind against Bulgaria in their second match, but a Gerd Muller hat-trick helped them fight back to win 5–2. Muller hit another hat-trick in the Germans' last group game, scoring all their goals in a 3–1 win over Peru. In the end, Peru eventually advanced along with West Germany after scoring three times in 11 second-half minutes to beat Morocco 3–0.[citation needed]


The quarter-finals saw a transformed Italy prevail 4–1 over Mexico after trailing 0–1. The host took the lead against Italy with a Jose Gonzales goal, but his team-mate Gustavo Pena equalised with an own goal before half-time. Italy then took over, and dominated the second half. Two goals from Luigi Riva and one from Gianni Rivera saw them go through 4–1. In Guadalajara, Peru's World Cup adventure ended in the quarter-finals, where they lost 4–2 to Brazil after an entertaining and dramatic match between two equally attacking teams.[citation needed]

The game between Uruguay and the Soviet Union was goalless until five minutes from the end of extra time, when Victor Esparrago struck to send the South Americans through. The last quarter-final, a rematch of the 1966 World Cup final between England and West Germany, produced one of the great matches of World Cup history. England suffered a serious blow before the game, when their great goalkeeper Gordon Banks was taken ill with food poisoning. His deputy Peter Bonetti stepped into the breach, and early in the second half England had a 2–0 lead and seemed to have West Germany firmly in its grasp. However, West Germany pulled one back with a goal from Beckenbauer in the 68th minute. In a panic, England coach Alf Ramsey decided then to substitute the tiring Bobby Charlton. Without Charlton, England lost its ability to set its own pace on the game and could not contain the relentless German attacks which eventually resulted in West Germany equalizing eight minutes from time with an Uwe Seeler header. In extra-time, Geoff Hurst had a goal mysteriously ruled out[11] before Gerd Müller's winning goal in extra time after another Bonetti error, thus, ending England's reign as world champions.[citation needed]

Semifinals, third place

The semi-finals featured an exciting final four, all four having won the World Cup in the past: Brazil vs Uruguay, and Italy vs West Germany. In the all-South American match, Brazil managed to defeat Uruguay 3–1, finally gaining revenge for their defeat in the deciding match of the 1950 World Cup. Brazil fell behind 20 minutes into the match. The game was evenly matched for 70 minutes but the Uruguayans found Brazil's attack too much to overcome. This match also featured another bright moment by Pelé: upon holding possession near the box, he managed to rush all alone up to Uruguayan goalkeeper Ladislao Mazurkiewicz and, tipping the ball through his left side, the Brazilian ran through the right side, catching the ball on the run and then taking a shot to the empty goal. However, Pelé missed by a sliver again. The other, all-European semi-final was regarded by many as the greatest World Cup game ever. Italy took a 1–0 lead through Roberto Boninsegna on 8 minutes after an excellent "one-two" combination with Luigi Riva. West Germany pressed to equalize for the rest of the game, until the very end when sweeper Karl-Heinz Schnellinger, then with Italy's AC Milan, scored in injury time. In extra time, Gerd Müller brought Germany the lead on 94 minutes before Italy defender Tarcisio Burgnich leveled the score with a rare international goal. On 103 minutes, Riva made it 3–2 past goalkeeper Sepp Maier, only for Müller to equalize six minutes later. As television cameras were still replaying Müller's goal, Italy midfielder Gianni Rivera, left unmarked near the penalty spot, side-footed a fine Boninsegna cross past Maier for the winning goal in the 111th minute. Franz Beckenbauer sustained a broken clavicle during extra time. As Helmut Schön, the West German manager, had already used the two permitted substitutes, Beckenbauer stayed on with his arm in a sling. This match is regarded as the "Game of the Century", also known as the Partita del Secolo in Italy and Jahrhundertspiel in Germany. A monument at the Estadio Azteca in Mexico City commemorates it. West Germany went on to win the 3rd place match against Uruguay (1–0).


In the final, Brazil struck first, with Pelé heading in a cross by Rivelino after a throw-in at the 18th minute. Roberto Boninsegna equalized for Italy after a series of blunders in the Brazilian defence. In the second half, Brazil's firepower and creativity was too much for a tired Italian side. Gérson fired in a powerful shot for the second goal, leaving Enrico Albertosi, the Italian keeper helpless, leaving and then helped provide the third, with a long free kick to Pelé who headed down into the path of the onrushing Jairzinho. Brazil's fourth goal, with five minutes to go, is considered one of the greatest goals ever scored in the history of the tournament. A total of 8 outfield players from Brazil were involved, encapsulating 'the beautiful game' in one glorious sweeping move. Tostão started the move just outside the Brazilian 18 yard box, then ran the length of the field to the Italian box without touching the ball again (although he signalled for Pelé to lay it off for Carlos Alberto). Clodoaldo beat 4 Italian players in his own half before passing to Rivelino, who hit a perfect pass down the left wing to Jairzinho. Jairzinho drove inside and passed to Pelé, who showed superb composure, in his last moments of World Cup play, to hold the ball up before rolling a perfectly weighted pass into the path of Carlos Alberto arriving from right back. Carlos Alberto's shot hammered into the bottom corner of the Italian goal, going too quick for Enrico Albertosi to even touch it.

Brazil had won the World Cup for the third time after 1958 and 1962, earning the right to retain the Jules Rimet Trophy permanently. Seven players (all of whom featured in the Carlos Alberto goal) scored a total of 19 goals (more than any team since). Jairzinho scored in every match in the finals, an amazing feat. While Tostão proved a quick-witted and skilful strike partner. Clodoaldo and particularly Gerson provided superb passes to the front three, as well as goals at critical moments, and Rivelino's left-footed crosses and long-distance shooting were a constant danger. Coach Mário Zagallo was the first footballer to become World Cup champion as a player (1958, 1962) and a coach - his other attempts (1974, 1998) would not be successful.

But it was the style of play that will be remembered. Italy's goal in the final involved four separate errors by the Brazilian defence, but it was of no matter; in 1970 defence was not Brazil's primary interest, with their 7 goals conceded being more than any other champion since. They gambled on outscoring the opposition, and won, every time. Since 1970 winning the World Cup has not been possible without a cast-iron defence, as evidenced by the failure of another great attacking side, Brazil's 1982 team. It would be 24 years before Brazil could put their hands on the new FIFA trophy, once again beating Italy in the final of the 1994 World Cup, although only on penalties and needing a much more defensive style to that seen in 1970.

Before the finals in Mexico, Brazil had to play the qualifying rounds against Colombia, Venezuela and Paraguay. Brazil was far superior winning all 6 games, scoring 23 goals and conceding only 2. In the last match of the qualifying rounds Brazil beat Paraguay 1 – 0 and had the largest official audience ever recorded for a football match, with 183,341 spectators in Brazil's Maracanã Stadium. In total the Brazilian team won all 12 games, scoring 42 goals and conceding only 8. At the Finals Brazil defeated three former World Cup winners: England, Uruguay and Italy. Brazil was the first team to achieve this feat, subsequently matched only by Italy in 1982 and Argentina in 1986.

The top scorer of the tournament was West Germany's Gerd Müller, with an impressive 10 goals in the competition. Müller incredibly scored hat-tricks in two consecutive games, against Bulgaria and Peru in the group stage.


The official mascot of this World Cup was Juanito, a boy wearing Mexico's uniform and a sombrero.


1970 FIFA World Cup is located in Mexico
Mexico City
A map showing the locations of the venues used at the 1970 FIFA World Cup

Five cities hosted the tournament:

GuadalajaraLeónMexico CityPueblaToluca
Estadio JaliscoEstadio Nou CampEstadio AztecaEstadio CuauhtémocEstadio Luis Dosal
Estadio jalisco.jpgEstadioLeon.jpgEstadio Azteca 07a.jpgEl Estadio Cuauhtémoc.jpgNemesio diez.JPG

Match officials

  • Mexico Abel Aguilar Elizalde
  • Mexico Diego De Leo
  • United States Henry Landauer
  • Argentina Ángel Norberto Coerezza
  • Brazil Antônio de Moraês
  • Chile Rafael Hormázabal
  • Peru Arturo Yamasaki
  • Uruguay Ramón Barreto


For a list of all squads that appeared in the final tournament, see 1970 FIFA World Cup squads.


  Third place
  Fourth place
  Group stage

Group stage

Group 1

 Soviet Union321061+55
 El Salvador300309−90
31 May 1970
12:00 (CST)
Mexico 0 – 0 Soviet UnionEstadio Azteca, Mexico City
Attendance: 107,000
Referee: Kurt Tschenscher (West Germany)

3 June 1970
16:00 (CST)
Belgium 3 – 0 El SalvadorEstadio Azteca, Mexico City
Attendance: 92,000
Referee: Andrei Rădulescu (Romania)
Van Moer Goal 12'54'
Lambert Goal 76' (pen.)

6 June 1970
16:00 (CST)
Soviet Union 4 – 1 BelgiumEstadio Azteca, Mexico City
Attendance: 59,000
Referee: Rudolf Scheurer (Switzerland)
Byshovets Goal 14'63'
Asatiani Goal 57'
Khmelnitsky Goal 76'
ReportLambert Goal 86'

7 June 1970
12:00 (CST)
Mexico 4 – 0 El SalvadorEstadio Azteca, Mexico City
Attendance: 103,000
Referee: Ali Kandil (United Arab Republic)
Valdivia Goal 45'46'
Fragoso Goal 58'
Basaguren Goal 83'

10 June 1970
16:00 (CST)
Soviet Union 2 – 0 El SalvadorEstadio Azteca, Mexico City
Attendance: 89,000
Referee: Rafael Hormazábal Díaz (Chile)
Byshovets Goal 51'74'Report

11 June 1970
16:00 (CST)
Mexico 1 – 0 BelgiumEstadio Azteca, Mexico City
Attendance: 105,000
Referee: Angel Norberto Coerezza (Argentina)
Peña Goal 14' (pen.)Report

Group 2

2 June 1970
16:00 (CST)
Uruguay 2 – 0 IsraelEstadio Cuauhtémoc, Puebla
Attendance: 20,000
Referee: Bob Davidson (Scotland)
Maneiro Goal 23'
Mujica Goal 52'

3 June 1970
16:00 (CST)
Italy 1 – 0 SwedenEstadio Luis Dosal, Toluca
Attendance: 14,000
Referee: Jack Taylor (England)
Domenghini Goal 10'Report

6 June 1970
16:00 (CST)
Uruguay 0 – 0 ItalyEstadio Cuauhtémoc, Puebla
Attendance: 30,000
Referee: Rudi Glöckner (East Germany)

7 June 1970
12:00 (CST)
Israel 1 – 1 SwedenEstadio Luis Dosal, Toluca
Attendance: 10,000
Referee: Seyoum Tarekegn (Ethiopia)
Spiegler Goal 56'ReportTuresson Goal 53'

10 June 1970
16:00 (CST)
Sweden 1 – 0 UruguayEstadio Cuauhtémoc, Puebla
Attendance: 18,000
Referee: Henry Landauer (United States)
Grahn Goal 90'Report

11 June 1970
16:00 (CST)
Italy 0 – 0 IsraelEstadio Luis Dosal, Toluca
Attendance: 10,000
Referee: Antonio De Moraes (Brazil)

Group 3

2 June 1970
16:00 (CST)
England 1 – 0 RomaniaEstadio Jalisco, Guadalajara
Attendance: 50,560
Referee: Vital Loraux (Belgium)
Hurst Goal 65'Report

3 June 1970
16:00 (CST)
Brazil 4 – 1 CzechoslovakiaEstadio Jalisco, Guadalajara
Attendance: 52,897
Referee: Ramón Barreto (Uruguay)
Rivelino Goal 24'
Pelé Goal 59'
Jairzinho Goal 61'81'
ReportPetráš Goal 11'

6 June 1970
16:00 (CST)
Romania 2 – 1 CzechoslovakiaEstadio Jalisco, Guadalajara
Attendance: 56,818
Referee: Diego De Leo (Mexico)
Neagu Goal 52'
Dumitrache Goal 75' (pen.)
ReportPetráš Goal 5'

7 June 1970
12:00 (CST)
Brazil 1 – 0 EnglandEstadio Jalisco, Guadalajara
Attendance: 66,834
Referee: Abraham Klein (Israel)
Jairzinho Goal 59'Report

10 June 1970
16:00 (CST)
Brazil 3 – 2 RomaniaEstadio Jalisco, Guadalajara
Attendance: 50,804
Referee: Ferdinand Marschall (Austria)
Pelé Goal 19'67'
Jairzinho Goal 22'
ReportDumitrache Goal 34'
Dembrovschi Goal 84'

11 June 1970
16:00 (CST)
England 1 – 0 CzechoslovakiaEstadio Jalisco, Guadalajara
Attendance: 49,262
Referee: Roger Machin (France)
Clarke Goal 50' (pen.)Report

Group 4

 West Germany3300104+66
2 June 1970
16:00 (CST)
Peru 3 – 2 BulgariaEstadio Nou Camp, León
Attendance: 13,765
Referee: Antonio Sbardella (Italy)
Gallardo Goal 50'
Chumpitaz Goal 55'
Cubillas Goal 73'
ReportDermendzhiev Goal 13'
Bonev Goal 49'

3 June 1970
16:00 (CST)
West Germany 2 – 1 MoroccoEstadio Nou Camp, León
Attendance: 12,942
Referee: Laurens van Ravens (Netherlands)
Seeler Goal 56'
Müller Goal 78'
ReportHoumane Goal 21'

6 June 1970
16:00 (CST)
Peru 3 – 0 MoroccoEstadio Nou Camp, León
Attendance: 13,537
Referee: Tofik Bakhramov (Soviet Union)
Cubillas Goal 65'75'
Challe Goal 67'

7 June 1970
12:00 (CST)
West Germany 5 – 2 BulgariaEstadio Nou Camp, León
Attendance: 12,710
Referee: José María Ortiz de Mendibil (Spain)
Libuda Goal 20'
Müller Goal 27'52' (pen.)88'
Seeler Goal 67'
ReportNikodimov Goal 12'
Kolev Goal 89'

10 June 1970
16:00 (CST)
West Germany 3 – 1 PeruEstadio Nou Camp, León
Attendance: 17,875
Referee: Abel Aguilar Elizalde (Mexico)
Müller Goal 19'26'39'ReportCubillas Goal 44'

11 June 1970
16:00 (CST)
Morocco 1 – 1 BulgariaEstadio Nou Camp, León
Attendance: 12,299
Referee: Antonio Ribeiro Saldanha (Portugal)
Ghazouani Goal 61'ReportZhechev Goal 40'

Knockout stage

14 June – Mexico City    
  Soviet Union 0
17 June – Guadalajara
  Uruguay (a.e.t.) 1 
  Uruguay 1
14 June – Guadalajara
   Brazil 3 
  Brazil 4
21 June – Mexico City
  Peru 2 
  Brazil 4
14 June – Toluca
   Italy 1
  Italy 4
17 June – Mexico City
  Mexico 1 
  Italy (a.e.t.) 4Third place
14 June – León
   West Germany 3 
  West Germany (a.e.t.) 3  Uruguay 0
  England 2   West Germany 1
20 June – Mexico City


14 June 1970
12:00 (CST)
West Germany 3 – 2 (a.e.t.) EnglandEstadio Nou Camp, León
Attendance: 23,357
Referee: Ángel Norberto Coerezza (Argentina)
Beckenbauer Goal 68'
Seeler Goal 76'
Müller Goal 108'
ReportMullery Goal 31'
Peters Goal 49'

14 June 1970
12:00 (CST)
Brazil 4 – 2 PeruEstadio Jalisco, Guadalajara
Attendance: 54,233
Referee: Vital Loraux (Belgium)
Rivelino Goal 11'
Tostão Goal 15'52'
Jairzinho Goal 75'
ReportGallardo Goal 28'
Cubillas Goal 70'

14 June 1970
12:00 (CST)
Italy 4 – 1 MexicoEstadio Luis Dosal, Toluca
Attendance: 26,851
Referee: Rudolf Scheurer (Switzerland)
Guzmán Goal 25' (o.g.)
Riva Goal 63'76'
Rivera Goal 70'
ReportGonzález Goal 13'

14 June 1970
12:00 (CST)
Uruguay 1 – 0 (a.e.t.) Soviet UnionEstadio Azteca, Mexico City
Attendance: 24,550
Referee: Laurens van Ravens (Netherlands)
Espárrago Goal 116'Report


17 June 1970
16:00 (CST)
Brazil 3 – 1 UruguayEstadio Jalisco, Guadalajara
Attendance: 51,261
Referee: José María Ortiz de Mendibil (Spain)
Clodoaldo Goal 44'
Jairzinho Goal 76'
Rivelino Goal 89'
ReportCubilla Goal 19'

17 June 1970
16:00 (CST)
Italy 4 – 3 (a.e.t.) West GermanyEstadio Azteca, Mexico City
Attendance: 102,444
Referee: Arturo Yamasaki Maldonado (Mexico) [12]
Boninsegna Goal 8'
Burgnich Goal 98'
Riva Goal 104'
Rivera Goal 111'
ReportSchnellinger Goal 90'
Müller Goal 94'110'

Match for third place

20 June 1970
16:00 (CST)
West Germany 1 – 0 UruguayEstadio Azteca, Mexico City
Attendance: 104,403
Referee: Antonio Sbardella (Italy)
Overath Goal 26'Report


21 June 1970
12:00 (CST)
Brazil 4 – 1 ItalyEstadio Azteca, Mexico City
Attendance: 107,412
Referee: Rudi Glöckner (East Germany)
Pelé Goal 18'
Gérson Goal 66'
Jairzinho Goal 71'
Carlos Alberto Goal 86'
ReportBoninsegna Goal 37'


FIFA Fair Play Trophy


10 goals
7 goals
5 goals
4 goals
3 goals
2 goals
1 goal
Own goals

FIFA Retrospective Ranking

In 1986, FIFA published a report that ranked all teams in each World Cup up to and including 1986, based on progress in the competition, overall results and quality of the opposition.[13] The rankings for the 1970 tournament were as follows:


  1.  Brazil
  2.  Italy

3rd and 4th place

  1.  West Germany
  2.  Uruguay

Eliminated in the quarter-finals

  1.  Soviet Union
  2.  Mexico
  3.  Peru
  4.  England

Eliminated at the group stage

  1.  Sweden
  2.  Belgium,  Romania (same rank)
  3.  Bulgaria
  4.  Israel
  5.  Morocco
  6.  Czechoslovakia
  7.  El Salvador

Notable innovations

For the first time, substitutions were allowed in World Cup play. Each team were allowed to make two substitutions during a match. The Soviet Union were the first team to make a substitution in World Cup history against Mexico in the opening match. Viktor Serebryanikov was the first player to be replaced, by Anatoliy Puzach after 45 minutes.

This World Cup also featured the first ever use of yellow and red cards for cautions and expulsions respectively. (Note that cautions and expulsions already existed prior to 1970.) Five yellow cards were shown in the opening Mexico vs USSR match, while no red cards were given in the tournament. The idea of language-neutral coloured cards originated with British referee Ken Aston, who got the idea while sitting in his car at a traffic light.[14]


  1. ^ Brazil 'best ever' says Five Live BBC Sport. Retrieved 5 May 2011
  2. ^ The boys from Brazil: On the trail of football's dream team The Independent. Retrieved 14 May 2011
  3. ^ Mexico 1970: Brazilians show all how beautiful game should be played Sky Sports Retrieved 5 May 2011
  4. ^ 1970 Brazilian Soccer Team Voted Best Ever The New York Times. Retrieved 5 May 2011
  5. ^ The greatest teams of all time The Telegraph. Retrieved 5 May 2011
  6. ^ The 10 greatest football teams of all time Daily Mail. Retrieved 5 May 2011
  7. ^ The 100 greatest World Cup moments: (No.1) .The Independent. Retrieved 13 May 2011
  8. ^ Why Mexico 1970 was the greatest World Cup ever The Mirror. Retrieved 14 May 2011
  9. ^ "History of the World Cup Final Draw" (PDF). http://www.fifa.com/mm/document/fifafacts/mcwc/ip-201_10e_fwcdraw-history_8842.pdf. Retrieved 2 March 2012. 
  10. ^ Anderson, Thomas P. The War of the Dispossessed: Honduras and El Salvador 1969. p.105 Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1981.
  11. ^ England: The Official F.A History, Niall Edworthy, Virgin Publishers, 1997, ISBN 1-85227-699-1. p. 101
  12. ^ Arturo Yamasaki was born in Peru, where he begun his career as referee. He moved from Peru to officiate matches in Mexico in 1968, and hence he attended this World Cup as a representative of the Mexican football federation.
  13. ^ Permanent Table: FIFA World Cup. 'FIFA.com page 45. Rerieved 5 May 2011
  14. ^ Ken Aston - the inventor of yellow and red cards FIFA.com, 15 January 2002

External links