This article is about the year 1944.
Year 1944 ( ) was a MCMXLIV leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. Events [edit ]
Below, events of
World War II have the "WWII" prefix. January [edit ] February [edit ]
Polish inmates hanged by Germans in
, February 11, 1944.
March [edit ] March March 1 – WWII: March 2 March 3 – WWII: The Order of Nakhimov and the Order of Ushakov are instituted in the USSR. March 4 – In Ossining, New York, Louis Buchalter, the leader of 1930s crime syndicate Murder, Inc., is executed at Sing Sing, along with Emanuel Weiss, and Louis Capone. March 6 – WWII: Soviet Army planes attack Narva, Estonia, destroying almost the entire old town. March 9 – WWII: Soviet Army planes attack Tallinn, Estonia. March 10 In Britain, the prohibition on married women working as teachers is lifted. [5 ] Resistance leader Joop Westerweel is arrested while returning to the Netherlands having escorted a group of Jewish children to safety in Spain. March 12 – WWII: The Political Committee of National Liberation is created in Greece. March 15 March 17 – WWII: The Nazis execute almost 400 prisoners, Soviet citizens and anti- fascist Romanians at Rîbniţa. March 18 – The last eruption of Mount Vesuvius in Italy kills 26 and causes thousands to flee their homes. March 19 – WWII: German forces occupy Hungary in Operation Margarethe. March 20 – WWII: RAF Flight Sergeant Nicholas Alkemade's bomber is hit over Germany, and he has to bail out without a parachute from a height of over 4,000 meters. Tree branches interrupt his fall and he lands safely on deep snow. March 23 – WWII: Members of the Italian Resistance attack Nazis marching in Via Rasella, killing 33. March 24 – WWII: Ardeatine massacre: 335 Italians are killed, including 75 Jews and over 200 members of the Italian Resistance from various groups, in Rome. In the Polish village of Markowa, German police kill Józef and Wiktoria Ulm, their six children and eight Jews they were hiding. The "Great Escape": 76 Royal Air Force prisoners of war escape by tunnel "Harry" from Stalag Luft III this night. Only three. two Norwegians and a Dutchman, return to the UK; of those recaptured, fifty are executed. April [edit ] May [edit ] June [edit ]
Allied troops land on the beaches of Normandy during
June 1 June 2 – WWII: The provisional French government is established. June 4 – WWII: June 5 – WWII: The German navy's Enigma messages are decoded almost in real time. British Group Captain James Stagg correctly forecasts a brief improvement in weather conditions over the English Channel which will permit the following day's Normandy landings to take place (having been deferred from today due to unfavourable weather). At 10:15 p.m. local time, the BBC transmits the second line of the Paul Verlaine poem to the French Resistance, indicating that the invasion of Europe is about to begin. [14 ] More than 1,000 British bombers drop 5,000 tons of bombs on German gun batteries on the Normandy coast in preparation for D-Day. US and British paratrooper divisions jump over Normandy, in preparation for D-Day, including 82nd and 101st Airborne divisions of the United States. June 6 – WWII – D-Day: 155,000 Allied troops shipped from England land on the beaches of Normandy in northern France, beginning Operation Overlord and the Invasion of Normandy. The Allied soldiers quickly break through the Atlantic Wall and push inland, in the largest amphibious military operation in history. This operation helps liberate France from Germany, and also weakens the Nazi hold on Europe. June 7 – WWII: The steamer Danae ( Greek: Δανάη) carrying 350 Cretan Jews and 250 Cretans on the first leg of their way to Auschwitz is sunk without survivors off Santorini. Bayeux is liberated by British troops. June 9 – WWII: Soviet leader Joseph Stalin launches the Vyborg–Petrozavodsk Offensive against Finland, with the intent of defeating Finland before pushing for Berlin. June 10 – WWII: 642 men, women and children are killed in the Oradour-sur-Glane Massacre in France. June 13 – WWII: Germany launches the first V-1 Flying Bomb attack on London. [15 ] June 15 – WWII: Battle of Saipan: United States forces land on Saipan. June 17 – Iceland declares full independence from Denmark. June 19 – A severe storm badly damages the Mulberry harbours on the Normandy coast. June 22 – WWII: June 25 – WWII: The Battle of Tali-Ihantala (the largest battle ever in the Nordic countries) begins between Finnish and Soviet troops. Finland is able to resist the attack and thus manages to stay as an independent nation. June 26 – WWII: American troops enter Cherbourg. June 29 June 30 – WWII: 3,219 drown when USS torpedoes Tang Nikkin Maru. [16 ] July [edit ]
Soviet soldiers fight in the streets of Jelgava, summer 1944.
American medics helping injured soldier in France, 1944.
August [edit ]
Crowds of French people line the Champs Élysées following the
Liberation of Paris
, 26 August 1944.
August 1 – WWII: The Warsaw Uprising begins. August 2 – WWII: Turkey ends diplomatic and economic relations with Germany. The First Assembly of ASNOM (the Anti-Fascist Assembly for the People's Liberation of Macedonia) is held in the Prohor Pčinjski monastery. August 3 – The Education Act in the United Kingdom, promoted by Rab Butler, creates a Tripartite System of secondary education. [19 ] August 4 – The Holocaust: A tip from a Dutch informer leads the Gestapo to a sealed-off area in an Amsterdam warehouse, where they find Jewish diarist Anne Frank, her family, and others in hiding. All would die in the Holocaust except for Otto Frank, Anne's father. August 5 The Holocaust: Polish insurgents liberate a German labor camp in Warsaw, freeing 348 Jewish prisoners. WWII: Cowra breakout: Over 500 Japanese prisoners of war attempt a mass breakout from the Cowra camp in Australia. In the ensuing manhunt, 231 Japanese escapees and four Australian soldiers are killed. August 7 – IBM dedicates the first program-controlled calculator, the Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator (known best as the Harvard Mark I). August 9 – The United States Forest Service and the Wartime Advertising Council release posters featuring Smokey Bear for the first time. August 12 – WWII: August 15 – WWII: Operation Dragoon lands Allies in southern France. The U.S. 45th Infantry Division participates in its fourth assault landing at Sainte-Maxime, spearheading the drive for the Belfort Gap. August 18 – WWII: Submarine USS sinks Rasher (SS-269) Teia Maru, Eishin Maru, Teiyu Maru, and carrier from Japanese convoy HI71 in one of the most effective American " Taiyō wolfpack" attacks of the war. [20 ] August 19 – WWII: August 20 – WWII: August 21 – Dumbarton Oaks Conference (Washington Conversations on International Peace and Security Organization) opens in Washington, D.C.: U.S., British, Chinese, French and Soviet representatives meet to plan the foundation of the United Nations. [15 ] August 22 – WWII: , a Japanese unmarked passenger/cargo ship, is sunk by Tsushima Maru torpedoes launched by the submarine USS off Bowfin (SS-287) Akuseki-jima, killing 1,484 civilians including 767 schoolchildren. August 23 – WWII: Ion Antonescu, prime minister of Romania, is arrested and a new government established. Romania leaves the war against the Soviet Union, joining the Allies. August 24 – WWII: August 25 – WWII: August 29 – WWII: The Slovak National Uprising against the Axis powers begins. August 31 – The Mad Gasser of Mattoon apparently resumes their mysterious attacks in Mattoon, Illinois for 2 weeks. September [edit ] October [edit ]
American troops advance towards San Jose on Leyte Island, 20 October 1944.
November [edit ] November 1– December 7 – Delegates of 52 nations meet at the International Civil Aviation Conference in Chicago to plan for postwar international cooperation, framing the constitution of the International Civil Aviation Organization. November 3 – WWII: Two supreme commanders of the Slovak National Uprising, Generals Ján Golian and Rudolf Viest, are captured, tortured and later executed by German forces. November 7 November 10 – WWII: Ammunition ship USS disintegrates from accidental detonation of 3800 tons of cargo in the Mount Hood (AE-11) Seeadler Harbor fleet anchorage at Manus Island. 22 small boats are destroyed, 36 nearby ships damaged, 432 men are killed and 371 more are injured. [27 ] November 12 – WWII: Sinking of the German battleship by British Royal Air Force Tirpitz Lancaster bombers. [15 ] November 14 – WWII: 2,246 drown when USS torpedoes Queenfish . Akitsu Maru [28 ] November 18 November 22 November 27 – RAF Fauld explosion: Between 3,450 and 3,930 tons (3,500 and 4,000 tonnes) of ordnance explodes at an underground storage depot in Staffordshire, England, leaving about 75 dead and a crater 1,200 metres (0.75 miles) across and 120 metres (400 ft) deep. The blast is one of the largest non-nuclear explosions in history and the largest on UK soil. [30 ] November 29 – WWII: Submarine USS sinks Japanese Archer-Fish (SS-311) aircraft carrier . Shinano Shinano is the largest carrier built to this date, and will remain through the twentieth century the largest ship sunk by a submarine. [31 ] December [edit ] Date unknown [edit ] Births [edit ] January [edit ] February [edit ] February 2 – Geoffrey Hughes, English actor (d. 2012) February 3 – Trisha Noble, Australian singer and actress February 5 – Al Kooper, American rock musician ( Blood, Sweat & Tears) February 9 – Alice Walker, American writer February 10 – Vernor Vinge, American writer February 11 – Michael G. Oxley, American politician February 12 – Moe Bandy, American country music singer February 13 February 14 February 16 February 17 – Karl Jenkins, Welsh composer February 20 – Willem van Hanegem, Dutch football player and coach February 22 February 23 – Johnny Winter, American rock musician February 25 – François Cevert, French racing driver (d. 1973) February 27 – Ken Grimwood, American writer (d. 2003) February 28 – Sepp Maier, German footballer February 29 – Dennis Farina, American actor (d. 2013) March [edit ] March 1 March 2 – Leif Segerstam, Finnish conductor and composer March 2 – Uschi Glas, German actress March 4 March 5 – Peter Brandes, Danish artist March 6 March 8 – Buzz Hargrove, Canadian labour leader March 11 Graham Lyle, Grammy-winning Scottish singer-songwriter and guitarist, known for writing several international hits for Tina Turner Don Maclean, English comedian and broadcaster March 17 – John Sebastian, American singer and songwriter ( The Lovin' Spoonful) March 19 March 21 – Hilary Minster, English actor (d. 1999) March 24 – R. Lee Ermey, U.S. Marine and actor March 26 – Diana Ross, American singer ( The Supremes) March 27 – Khosrow Shakibai, Iranian actor (d. 2008) March 28 March 29 – Denny McLain, American baseball player April [edit ] April 3 – Tony Orlando, American musician April 4 – Magda Aelvoet, Belgian politician April 5 – Peter T. King, American politician April 6 April 7 – Gerhard Schröder, former Chancellor of Germany April 8 April 11 – John Milius, American film director, producer and screenwriter April 13 – Jack Casady, American rock musician ( Jefferson Airplane, Hot Tuna) April 15 – Dzhokhar Dudayev, Chechen leader, first President of the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria, an unrecognized breakaway state in the North Caucasus (d. 1996) April 18 – Charlie Tuna, American disc jockey and game show announcer April 19 – James Heckman, American economist, Nobel Prize laureate April 22 – Steve Fossett, American aviator, sailor and millionaire adventurer (d. 2007) April 24 – Tony Visconti, American record producer, musician and singer April 25 – Len Goodman, British ballroom dancer and television personality April 26 – Larry H. Miller, American sports owner ( Utah Jazz; d. 2009) April 27 April 28 – Jean-Claude Van Cauwenberghe, Belgian politician April 29 – Richard Kline, American actor and television director April 30 – Jill Clayburgh, American actress (d. 2010) May [edit ] May 1 – Suresh Kalmadi, Indian politician May 5 – John Rhys-Davies, Welsh actor May 8 – Gary Glitter, English singer May 9 May 10 – Jim Abrahams, American film director May 12 – Sara Kestelman, English actress May 13 – Armistead Maupin, American author May 14 – George Lucas, American film director and producer May 15 – Gunilla Hutton, Swedish-born American actress and singer May 20 May 21 – Mary Robinson, President of Ireland May 23 May 24 – Patti LaBelle, American singer May 25 – Frank Oz, English puppeteer and film director May 27 – Chris Dodd, American politician May 28 May 29 – Helmut Berger, Austrian actor May 30 – Meredith MacRae, American actress (d. 2000) June [edit ] June 1 – Robert Powell, English actor June 3 – Edith McGuire, American sprinter June 4 – Michelle Phillips, American singer and actress ( The Mamas & the Papas) June 5 June 6 – Phillip Allen Sharp, American scientist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine June 8 June 13 – Ban Ki-moon, South Korean politician and Secretary-General of the United Nations June 16 – Henri Richelet, French painter June 17 – Bill Rafferty, American comedian and impressionist (d. 2012) June 21 – Ray Davies, English rock-singer and songwriter, co-founder of The Kinks June 24 June 29 – Gary Busey, American actor June 30 July [edit ] July 3 – Michel Polnareff, French singer July 8 – Jeffrey Tambor, American actor July 13 – Ernő Rubik, Hungarian inventor July 14 – Aad Mansveld, Dutch footballer July 15 – Jan-Michael Vincent, American actor July 16 – Angharad Rees, Welsh actress (d. 2012) July 17 – Mark Burgess, New Zealand cricket captain July 21 – Paul Wellstone, U.S. Senator from Minnesota (d. 2002) July 23 – Alex Buzo, of Sydney, Australian playwright and author (d. 2006) July 31 August [edit ] August 1 – Yuri Romanenko, Soviet cosmonaut August 2 – Jim Capaldi, British drummer, singer, and songwriter ( Traffic; d. 2005) August 3 – Jonas Falk, Swedish actor (d. 2010) August 4 August 7 – John Glover, American actor August 8 – Brooke Bundy, American actress August 9 – Sam Elliott, American actor August 9 – Khaleda Zia, Bangladeshi politician and former Prime Minister. August 11 – Ian McDiarmid, Scottish actor August 12 – Larry Troutman, American musician (d. 1999) August 13 – Kevin Tighe, American actor August 15 – Sylvie Vartan, French singer August 18 – Robert Hitchcock, Australian Sculptor August 19 – Bodil Malmsten, Swedish writer August 20 – Linda Clifford, American R&B and dance singer August 21 August 23 – Saira Banu, Indian actress August 25 – Christine Chubbuck, American television reporter (d. 1974) August 26 – Prince Richard, Duke of Gloucester August 31 – Jos LeDuc, Canadian professional wrestler (d. 1999) September [edit ] September 1 – Leonard Slatkin, American conductor September 2 – Gilles Marchal, French musician September 3 – Tim Donnelly, American actor ( Emergency!) September 6 – Christian Boltanski, French artist September 7 September 12 September 13 September 16 – Betty Kelley, American singer ( Martha and the Vandellas) September 17 – Reinhold Messner, Italian mountaineer September 18 – Satan's Angel, American exotic dancer September 19 – Ismet Özel, Turkish poet September 21 – Hamilton Jordan, Jimmy Carter's first White House Chief of Staff (d. 2008) September 22 – Frazer Hines, British actor September 25 – Michael Douglas, American actor, producer September 26 September 30 – Jimmy Johnstone, Scottish footballer (d. 2006) October [edit ] November [edit ] November 1 November 6 – Wild Man Fischer, Outsider musician November 7 – Joe Niekro, American baseball player (d. 2006) November 10 November 11 – Kemal Sunal, Turkish comedian November 12 November 17 November 18 – Wolfgang Joop, German artist, fashion designer, and art collector November 21 – Richard Durbin, American politician November 24 – Ibrahim Gambari, Nigerian scholar and diplomat November 25 – Ben Stein, American law professor, actor and author November 30 – George Graham, Scottish football player and manager December [edit ] December 2 December 5 – Jeroen Krabbé, Dutch actor and film director December 6 December 7 December 9 December 11 December 12 – Kenneth Cranham, Scottish born actor December 17 – Bernard Hill, English actor December 19 – Tim Reid, American actor and comedian December 21 December 22 – Steve Carlton, American baseball player December 23 December 24 – Erhard Keller, German speed skater December 25 – Jairzinho, Brazilian football player December 26 December 28 – Kary Mullis, American chemist, Nobel Prize laureate December 30 – Joseph Hilbe, American statistician and author December 31 – Jan Widströmer, Swedish artist Date unknown [edit ] Deaths [edit ] January [edit ] February [edit ] March [edit ] April [edit ] May [edit ] June [edit ] July [edit ] August [edit ] September [edit ] October [edit ] November [edit ] December [edit ] Date unknown [edit ] Nobel Prizes [edit ] References [edit ] ^ "Convoy Mo-Ta-06 (モタ61船団)". 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Devon at War, 1939–1945. Tiverton: Devon Books. p. 157. ISBN 0-86114-885-1. ^ a b "Year by Year 1944" – History Channel International ^ Kaiser, Don (2011). "K-Ships Across the Atlantic". Naval Aviation News 93 (2) . Retrieved 2011-09-23. ^ "Blimp Squadron 14". Warwingsart.com . Retrieved 2011-09-23. ^ Foot, M. R. D. (1999). SOE: An Outline History of the Special Operations Executive 1940–46. London: Pimlico. p. 143. ISBN 0-7126-6585-4. ^ a b c d Penguin Pocket On This Day. Penguin Reference Library. 2006. ISBN 0-14-102715-0. ^ "Nikkin Maru - Casualties (日錦丸の被害)". All Japan Seamen's Union . Retrieved 2011-11-18. ^ 56 F. Supp. 716 (N.D. Cal 1944). ^ Radinger, Will; Schick, Walter (1996). Me 262 (in German). Berlin: Avantic Verlag GmbH. ISBN 3-925505-21-0. ^ "Education Act, 1944" . Retrieved 2010-10-21. ^ Cressman, Robert J. (2000). The Official Chronology of the U.S. Navy in WWII. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. p. 248. ISBN 978-1-55750-149-3. ^ "Convoy Hi-71 (ヒ71船団)". 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The Official Chronology of the U.S. Navy in WWII. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. p. 278. ISBN 978-1-55750-149-3. ^ "The Sinking of SS Leopoldville". uboat.net . Retrieved 2010-07-04. ^ Until George Balanchine premieres his version in New York in 1954. ^ Asperger, H. (1991) . "'Autistic psychopathy' in childhood". In Frith, Uta. Autism and Asperger Syndrome. Cambridge University Press. pp. 37–92. ISBN 0-521-38448-6. ^ Guggisberg, Charles Albert Walter (1961). Simba: the life of the lion. Cape Town: Howard Timmins.