18th century

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Millennium:2nd millennium
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Millennium:2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:1700s 1710s 1720s 1730s 1740s
1750s 1760s 1770s 1780s 1790s
Categories:BirthsDeaths
EstablishmentsDisestablishments
Washington crossing the Delaware, Dec. 25 1776, an iconic event of the American Revolution
Storming of the Bastille, July 14, 1789, an iconic event of the French Revolution
1700 AD world map

The 18th century lasted from January 1, 1701 to December 31, 1800 in the Gregorian calendar.

During the 18th century, the Enlightenment culminated in the French and American revolutions. Philosophy and science increased in prominence. Philosophers dreamed of a brighter age. This dream turned into a reality with the French Revolution, although it was later compromised by the excesses of the terror of Maximilien Robespierre. At first, the monarchies of Europe embraced Enlightenment ideals, but with the French Revolution they feared losing their power and formed broad coalitions for the counter-revolution.

The Ottoman Empire underwent a protracted decline, as it failed to keep up with the technological advances in Europe. The Tulip period symbolized a period of peace and reorientation towards European society, after victory against a burgeoning Russian Empire in the Pruth River Campaign. Throughout the century various reforms were introduced with limited success.

The 18th century also marked the end of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth as an independent state. The once powerful and vast kingdom, that was once able to conquer Moscow and defeat the great Ottoman armies, collapsed under numerous invasions. Its semi-democratic government system was not efficient enough to rival the neighbouring monarchies of the Kingdom of Prussia, the Russian Empire and the Archduchy of Austria which divided the Commonwealth territories among them, changing the landscape of Central European politics for the next hundred years.

Great Britain became a major power worldwide with the defeat of France in the Americas, in the 1760s and the conquest of large parts of India. However, Britain lost much of its North American colonies after the American Revolution, which was actively helped by the French. The Industrial Revolution started in Britain in the 1770s with the production of the improved steam engine. Despite its modest beginnings in the 18th century, it would radically change human society and the environment.

Western historians have occasionally defined the 18th century otherwise for the purposes of their work. For example, the "short" 18th century may be defined as 1715–1789, denoting the period of time between the death of Louis XIV of France and the start of the French Revolution with an emphasis on directly interconnected events.[1][2] To historians who expand the century to include larger historical movements, the "long" 18th century[3] may run from the Glorious Revolution of 1688 to the battle of Waterloo in 1815[4] or even later.[5]

Events[edit]

1700s[edit]

A Watt steam engine. The development of the steam engine started the Industrial Revolution in Great Britain.
The battle of Poltava in 1709 turned Russia into a European power.
Tokugawa Yoshimune, Shogun of Japan.

1710s[edit]

1720s[edit]

Europe at the beginning of the War of the Spanish Succession, 1700

1730s[edit]

1740s[edit]

Frederick II the Great, King of Prussia
The extinction of the Scottish clan system came with the defeat of the clansmen at the Battle of Culloden in 1746[16]

1750s[edit]

1760s[edit]

Catherine the Great, Empress of Russia.
George III, King of Great Britain.

1770s[edit]

1780s[edit]

1790s[edit]

Significant people[edit]

World leaders, politicians, military[edit]

Ferdinand VI, King of Spain
Horatio Nelson, Vice Admiral in the British navy
Yeongjo, King of the Joseon Dynasty in Korea

Show business, theatre, entertainers[edit]

Musicians, composers[edit]

Visual artists, painters, sculptors, printmakers, architects[edit]

Self-portrait, Jacques-Louis David

Writers, poets[edit]

Philosophers, theologians[edit]

Scientists, researchers[edit]

Outlaws[edit]

Inventions, discoveries, introductions[edit]

The Chinese Putuo Zongcheng Temple of Chengde, completed in 1771, during the reign of the Qianlong Emperor.

Literary and philosophical achievements[edit]

Musical works[edit]

Decades and years[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Anderson, M. S. (1979). Historians and the Eighteenth-Century Europe, 1715–1789. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-822548-5. OCLC 185538307. 
  2. ^ Ribeiro, Aileen (2002). Dress in Eighteenth-Century Europe 1715-1789 (revised edition). Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-09151-9. OCLC 186413657. 
  3. ^ Baines, Paul (2004). The Long 18th Century. London: Arnold. ISBN 978-0-340-81372-0. 
  4. ^ Marshall, P. J. (Editor) (2001). The Oxford History of the British Empire: Volume II: The Eighteenth Century (Oxford History of the British Empire). Oxford University Press, USA. ISBN 978-0-19-924677-9. OCLC 174866045. , "Introduction" by P. J. Marshall, page 1
  5. ^ O'Gorman, Frank (1997). The Long Eighteenth Century: British Political and Social History 1688-1832 (The Arnold History of Britain Series). A Hodder Arnold Publication. ISBN 978-0-340-56751-7. OCLC 243883533. 
  6. ^ "War of the Spanish Succession, 1701-1714". Historyofwar.org. Retrieved 2009-04-25. 
  7. ^ Ricklefs (1991), page 82
  8. ^ Historic uk – heritage of britain accommodation guide (2007-05-03). "The history of Scotland – The Act of Union 1707". Historic-uk.com. Archived from the original on 8 April 2009. Retrieved 2009-04-25. 
  9. ^ Moore (Ed) (1999), p90
  10. ^ a b Ricklefs (1991), page 84
  11. ^ "Welcome to Encyclopædia Britannica's Guide to History". Britannica.com. 1910-01-31. Archived from the original on 16 April 2009. Retrieved 2009-04-25. 
  12. ^ "Usman dan Fodio (Fulani leader)". Britannica.com. Retrieved 2009-04-25. 
  13. ^ "List of Wars of the Crimean Tatars". Zum.de. Archived from the original on 12 March 2009. Retrieved 2009-04-25. 
  14. ^ Ricklefs (1991), page 86
  15. ^ "Len Milich: Anthropogenic Desertification vs 'Natural' Climate Trends". Ag.arizona.edu. 1997-08-10. Retrieved 2009-04-25. 
  16. ^ "A guide to Scottish clans". Unique-cottages.co.uk. Archived from the original on May 11, 2008. Retrieved 2009-04-25. 
  17. ^ Ricklefs (1991), page 87
  18. ^ "Saudi Arabia – The Saud Family and Wahhabi Islam". Countrystudies.us. Retrieved 2009-04-25. 
  19. ^ http://www.columbia.edu/content/history.html
  20. ^ Ricklefs (1991), page 93
  21. ^ Ricklefs (1991), page 102
  22. ^ Heuken (2000), page 307
  23. ^ Rosi, Adele (1998). Museum Nasional Guide Book. Jakarta: PT Indo Multi Media,Museum Nasional and Indonesian Heritage Society. p. 4. 
  24. ^ "Sufism in the Caucasus". Islamicsupremecouncil.org. Archived from the original on February 23, 2009. Retrieved 2009-04-25. 
  25. ^ Ricklefs (1991), page 101
  26. ^ "Yellow Fever Attacks Philadelphia, 1793". EyeWitness to History. Archived from the original on 7 June 2007. Retrieved 2007-06-22. 
  27. ^ Riedel S (2005). "Edward Jenner and the history of smallpox and vaccination". Proc (Bayl Univ Med Cent) 18 (1): 21–5. PMC 1200696. PMID 16200144. 
  28. ^ Ricklefs (1991), page 106
  29. ^ Porter, Roy (Editor) (2003). The Cambridge History of Science, Volume 4: The Eighteenth Century (The Cambridge History of Science). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-57243-9. OCLC 123123201. , "The Philosopher's Beard: Women and Gender in Science" by Londra Schiebinger, pages 184–210
  30. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica's Great Inventions, Encyclopædia Britannica
  31. ^ Meggs, Philip B. A History of Graphic Design. (1998) John Wiley & Sons, Inc. p 146 ISBN 978-0-471-29198-5

Further reading[edit]