Washington crossing the Delaware, December 25, 1776, an iconic event of the
18th century lasted from January 1, 1701 to December 31, 1800 in the Gregorian calendar.
During the 18th century, the
Enlightenment culminated in the French and American revolutions. Philosophy and science increased in prominence. Philosophers dreamed of a brighter age. This dream turned into a reality with the French Revolution, although it was later compromised by the excesses of the terror of Maximilien Robespierre. At first, the monarchies of Europe embraced Enlightenment ideals, but with the French Revolution they feared losing their power and formed broad coalitions for the counter-revolution.
Ottoman Empire underwent a protracted decline, as it failed to keep up with the technological advances in Europe. The Tulip period symbolized a period of peace and reorientation towards European society, after victory against a burgeoning Russian Empire in the Pruth River Campaign. Throughout the century various reforms were introduced with limited success.
The 18th century also marked the end of the
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth as an independent state. The once powerful and vast kingdom, that was once able to conquer Moscow and defeat the great Ottoman armies, collapsed under numerous invasions. Its semi-democratic government system was not efficient enough to rival the neighbouring monarchies of the Kingdom of Prussia, the Russian Empire and the Archduchy of Austria which divided the Commonwealth territories among them, changing the landscape of Central European politics for the next hundred years. Great Britain became a major power worldwide with the defeat of France in the Americas, in the 1760s and the conquest of large parts of India. However, Britain lost much of its North American colonies after the American Revolution, which was actively helped by the French. The Industrial Revolution started in Britain in the 1770s with the production of the improved steam engine. Despite its modest beginnings in the 18th century, it would radically change human society and the environment.
Western historians have occasionally defined the 18th century otherwise for the purposes of their work. For example, the "short" 18th century may be defined as 1715–1789, denoting the period of time between the death of
Louis XIV of France and the start of the French Revolution with an emphasis on directly interconnected events. [1 ] To historians who expand the century to include larger historical movements, the "long" 18th century [2 ] may run from the [3 ] Glorious Revolution of 1688 to the battle of Waterloo in 1815 or even later. [4 ] [5 ] Contents 1 Events 2 Significant people 2.1 World leaders, politicians, military 2.2 Show business, theatre, entertainers 2.3 Musicians, composers 2.4 Visual artists, painters, sculptors, printmakers, architects 2.5 Writers, poets 2.6 Philosophers, theologians 2.7 Scientists, researchers 2.8 Outlaws 3 Inventions, discoveries, introductions 4 Literary and philosophical achievements 5 Musical works 6 Decades and years 7 References 8 Further reading Events [edit ] 1740: Frederick the Great comes to power in Prussia 1740: British attempt to capture St. Augustine, Florida but lose to the Spanish during the Siege of St. Augustine 1740– 1741: Famine in Ireland killed ten per cent of the population 1740– 1748: War of the Austrian Succession 1740: 9 October, A massacre of Batavia's ethnic Chinese begins after they are suspected by the VOC of planning a rebellion. Approximately 10,000 are killed and the Chinese quarter is burned. [17 ] 1741: Russians began settling the Aleutian Islands 1741: Pope Benedict XIV issues Immensa Pastorum principis against slavery 1742: Cotton mills were first opened in England 1743: The capital Kartasura fell under Geger Pecinan uprising — Raden Mas Garendi (Sunan Kuning) led Chinese mercenaries revolted against Pakubuwono II. 1744: The First Saudi State is founded by Mohammed Ibn Saud [18 ] 1744: French attempt to restart the Jacobite rebellion fails 1744– 1748: The First Carnatic War fought between the British, the French, the Marathas, and Mysore in India 1745: Second Jacobite Rebellion began by Charles Edward Stuart in Scotland 1745: 17 February, Pakubuwono II established a new kraton in Sala village and established Surakarta Sunanate. 1747: Ahmed Shah Durrani founded the Durrani Empire in modern day Afghanistan 1748: Treaty of Aix-La-Chapelle ends the War of the Austrian Succession and First Carnatic War 1748– 1754: The Second Carnatic War fought between the British, the French, the Marathas, and Mysore in India 1750: Peak of the Little Ice Age 1754: Treaty of Pondicherry ends Second Carnatic War and recognizes Muhammed Ali Khan Wallajah as Nawab of the Carnatic. 1754: King's College founded by a royal charter of George II of Great Britain. [19 ] 1754– 1763: The French and Indian War, Fought in the U.S. and Canada mostly between the French and their allies and the English and their allies. The North American chapter of the Seven Years' War. 1755: The Lisbon earthquake 1755– 1763: The Great Upheaval, forced population transfer of the French Acadian population from Nova Scotia and New Brunswick 1755: 13 February, The Treaty of Giyanti is signed, effectively partitioning the Mataram Sultanate. The VOC recognizes Mangkubumi as Sultan Hamengkubuwana I, who rules half of Central Java. Hamengkubuwana I then established Yogyakarta Sultanate, moves to Yogya and renames the city Yogyakarta [20 ] 1756– 1763: Seven Years' War fought among European powers in various theaters around the world. 1756– 1763: The Third Carnatic War fought between the British, the French, the Marathas, and Mysore in India. 1757: Battle of Plassey signaled the beginning of formal British rule in India after years of commercial activity under the auspices of the East India Company. 1757: 17 March, Salatiga treaty between Prince Sambernyawa with Pakubuwono III and Hamengkubuwono I further partitioning the remnant of Mataram Sultanate, the Mangkunegaran Grand Duchy was established. 1758: British colonel James Wolfe issues the Wolfe's Manifesto 1759: French commander Louis-Joseph de Montcalm and British commander James Wolfe die during the Battle of the Plains of Abraham. 1790: United States of Belgium proclaimed following the Brabant Revolution. 1790: Suppression of the United States of Belgium and re-establishment of Austrian control. 1790: Establishment of the Polish-Prussian Pact 1791: The Constitutional Act (Or Canada Act) creates the two provinces of Upper and Lower Canada in British North America. 1791: Suppression of the Liège Revolution by Austrian forces and the re-establishment of the Prince-Bishopric of Liège. 1791– 1795: George Vancouver explores the world during the Vancouver Expedition. 1791– 1804: The Haitian Revolution 1792– 1802: The French Revolutionary Wars lead into the Napoleonic Wars from 1803- 1815. 1792: New York Stock & Exchange Board founded. 1792: Polish–Russian War of 1792 1792: King Gustav III of Sweden was assassinated by a conspiracy of noblemen. 1792: March, Hamengkubuwana I dies. [25 ] 1793: Upper Canada bans slavery. 1793: The largest yellow fever epidemic in American history killed as many as 5,000 people in Philadelphia—roughly 10% of the population. [26 ] 1793– 1796: Revolt in the Vendée against the French Republic at the time of the Revolution. 1794: Polish revolt 1794: Jay's Treaty concluded between Great Britain and the United States, by which the Western outposts in the Great Lakes are returned to the U.S., and commerce between the two countries is regulated. 1794: Qajar dynasty founded in Iran after replacing the Zand dynasty. 1795: Mohammad Khan Qajar razes Tbilisi to the ground. 1795: Establishment of the French-backed Batavian Republic in present-day Netherlands. 1795: Pinckney's Treaty between the United States and Spain granted the Mississippi Territory to the US. 1795: The Marseillaise officially adopted as the French national anthem. 1795: Kamehameha I of the Island of Hawaii defeats the Oahuans at the Battle of Nu'uanu. 1796: Edward Jenner administers the first smallpox vaccination. Smallpox killed an estimated 400,000 Europeans each year during the 18th century (including five reigning monarchs). [27 ] 1796: Battle of Montenotte. Engagement in the War of the First Coalition. Napoleon Bonaparte's first victory as an army commander. 1796: British ejected Dutch from Ceylon. 1796: Mungo Park, backed by the African Association, is the first European to set eyes on the Niger River in Africa. 1796– 1804: The White Lotus Rebellion against the Manchu Dynasty in China. 1797: Napoleon's invasion and partition of the Republic of Venice ended over 1,000 years of independence for the Serene Republic. 1798: The Irish Rebellion failed to overthrow British rule in Ireland. 1798– 1800: Quasi-War between the United States and France. 1799: Napoleon staged a coup d'état and became First Consul of France. 1799: Dutch East India Company is dissolved. 1799: The assassination of the 14th Tu'i Kanokupolu, Tukuʻaho, plunges Tonga into half a century of civil war. 1799: Tipu Sultan was killed in a battle with the British forces. 1800: 1 January, The bankrupt Dutch East India Company (VOC) is formally dissolved and the nationalised Dutch East Indies is established. [28 ] Significant people [edit ] World leaders, politicians, military [edit ] Yeongjo
, King of the Joseon Dynasty in Korea
John Adams, American statesman Samuel Adams, American statesman Ahmad Shah Abdali, Afghan King Ahmed III, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire Hyder Ali, Ruler of Mysore Ethan Allen, American Revolutionary Army Anne, Queen of Great Britain Marie Antoinette, Austrian-born Queen of France Ferdinand VI, King of Spain Augustus III, Elector of Saxony, King of Poland, and Grand Duke of Lithuania Aurangzeb, Mughal Emperor Boromakot, King of Ayutthaya Boromaracha V, King of Ayutthaya Aaron Burr, American statesman William Cavendish, Anglo-Irish politician John Carteret, Anglo-Irish politician Catherine the Great, Empress of Russia Charles III, King of Spain, Naples, and Sicily Charles VI, Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, King of Bohemia and Hungary Charles XII, King of Sweden, the Goths and the Wends; Charlotte Corday, French revolutionary Georges Danton, French revolutionary Elizabeth of Russia, Empress of Russia Farrukhsiyar, Emperor of Mughal Ferdinand I, King of Naples, Sicily, and the Two Sicilies Benjamin Franklin, American leader, scientist and statesman Juan Francisco, Spanish naval officer and explorer Adolf Frederick, King of Sweden, the Goths and the Wends Frederick the Great, King of Prussia George I, King of Great Britain and Ireland George II, King of Great Britain and Ireland George III, King of Great Britain and Ireland Olympe de Gouges, French feminist Robert Gray, American revolutionary, merchant, and explorer Gustav III, King of Sweden, the Goths and the Wends Guru Gobind Singh, tenth of the eleven Sikh Gurus Gyeongjong, King of Joseon Dynasty Nathan Hale, American patriot, executed for espionage by the British Abdul Hamid I, Sultan of Ottoman Empire Alexander Hamilton, American statesman Patrick Henry, American statesman Emperor Higashiyama, Emperor of Japan John Jay, American statesman Thomas Jefferson, American statesman Jeongjo, King of Joseon Dynasty John Paul Jones, American naval commander Joseph I, King of Portugal Joseph II, Austrian Emperor Kangxi Emperor, Chinese Emperor Karim Khan, Shah of Iran and King of Persia Marquis de Lafayette, Continental Army officer Louis XIV, King of France Louis XV, King of France Louis XVI, King of France Louis XVII, imprisoned King of France, never ruled James Madison, American statesman Madhavrao I, Peshwa/Prime Minister of Maratha Empire Madhavrao I Scindia, Marathan leader Mahmud I, Sultan of Ottoman Empire Alessandro Malaspina, Spanish explorer George Mason, American statesman Prince Aleksandr Menshikov, Russian statesman, generalissimo Michikinikwa, Miami chief and warrior José Moñino y Redondo, Spanish statesman Louis-Joseph de Montcalm, French officer Mustafa III, Sultan of Ottoman Empire Nadir Shah, King of Persia Nakamikado, Emperor of Japan Horatio Nelson, British admiral Nanasaheb, Peshwa/Prime Minister of Maratha Empire Shivappa Nayaka, King of Keladi Nayaka Osman III, Sultan of Ottoman Empire Peter I ( Peter the Great), Emperor of Russia Philip V, King of Spain Pontiac, Ottawa chief and warrior Prince Grigory Potyomkin, Russian statesman and general Nguyen Hue, Emperor of Tây Sơn Dynasty of Vietnam Qianlong, Emperor of China Rajaram II of Satara, Monarch of the Maratha Confederacy Francis II Rákóczi, Prince of Hungary and Transylvania, revolutionary leader Tadeusz Rejtan, Polish politician Paul Revere, American revolutionary leader and silversmith Maximilien Robespierre, French revolutionary leader Betsy Ross, American flag maker Count Pyotr Rumyantsev, Russian general Shah Rukh of Persia, King of Persia. John Russell, Anglo-Irish politician Lionel Sackville, Anglo-Irish politician Louis Antoine de Saint-Just, French revolutionary Sebastião de Melo, Prime Minister of Portugal Prithivi Narayan Shah, King of Nepal and founder of Kingdom of Nepal Chattrapati Shahu, Emperor of Maratha Empire Selim III, Sultan of Ottoman Empire Charles Edward Stuart, English Jacobite exile Sukjong, King of Joseon Dynasty Alexander Suvorov, Russian military leader Maria Theresa, Austrian Empress Tokugawa Ieharu, Japanese Shogun Tokugawa Ienobu, Japanese Shogun Tokugawa Ieshige, Japanese Shogun Tokugawa Ietsugu, Japanese Shogun Tokugawa Tsunayoshi, Japanese Shogun Tokugawa Yoshimune, Japanese Shogun Toussaint L'Ouverture, Haitian revolutionary leader Túpac Amaru II, Peruvian revolutionary George Vancouver, British Captain and explorer Robert Walpole, Prime Minister of Great Britain George Washington, American general and first President of the United States James Wolfe, British officer Yeongjo, King of Joseon Dynasty Show business, theatre, entertainers [edit ] Pierre Beaumarchais, French playwright Antonio Bernacchi, Italian singer Faustina Bordoni, Italian singer La Camargo, French dancer Barbara Campanini, Italian dancer Colley Cibber, English actor, poet, playwright La Clairon, French actress Fabre d'Églantine, French actor Farinelli, Italian singer Denis Fonvizin, Russian playwright David Garrick, English actor John Gay, English dramatist and poet Carlo Goldoni, Italian playwright Carlo Gozzi, Italian playwright Antiochus Kantemir, Russian playwright Praskovia Kovalyova-Zhemchugova, Russian actress, singer Adrienne Lecouvreur, French actress Charles Macklin, Irish actor Chikamatsu Monzaemon, Japanese dramatist, playwright Jean-Georges Noverre, French dancer and balletmaster Marie Sallé, French dancer and choreographer Senesino, Italian singer Kong Shangren, Chinese dramatist, poet Richard Brinsley Sheridan, Irish playwright Alexander Sumarokov, Russian playwright François-Joseph Talma, French actor Fyodor Volkov, Russian actor Wang Yun, Chinese playwright, poet Musicians, composers [edit ] Tomaso Albinoni, Italian composer Johann Sebastian Bach, German composer Dmitry Bortniansky, Russian composer Charles Burney, English musician and music historian François Couperin, French composer William Cowper, English hymnist and poet Dede Efendi, Turkish/Ottoman composer Christoph Willibald Gluck, German composer Francesco Geminiani, Italian violinist, composer, and music theorist. George Frideric Handel, German-English composer Joseph Haydn, Austrian composer Hampartsoum Limondjian, Armenian/Ottoman composer Kali Mirza, Bengali composer Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Austrian composer Johann Pachelbel, German composer, teacher François-André Danican Philidor, French composer and chess master Jean-Philippe Rameau, French composer Bharatchandra Ray, Bengali composer, musician, and poet Antonio Salieri, Venetian composer Domenico Scarlatti, Italian composer. Antonio Stradivari, Italian violin maker Georg Philipp Telemann, German composer Antonio Vivaldi, Italian composer Isaac Watts, English hymnist Visual artists, painters, sculptors, printmakers, architects [edit ] John James Audubon, French Painter John Baskerville, British printer and typographer (founder of Baskerville font, Birmingham). Bernardo Bellotto, Italian painter Michel Benoist, French painter, architect, missionary in China William Blake, English artist and poet Edmé Bouchardon, French sculptor François Boucher, French painter Canaletto, Italian painter Giuseppe Castiglione, Italian painter, architect, missionary in China Jean-Baptiste-Siméon Chardin, French painter Vasili Bazhenov, Russian architect Karl Blank, Russian architect Vladimir Borovikovsky, Russian painter Leonardo Coccorante, Italian painter John Singleton Copley, American painter Jacques-Louis David, French painter Yury Felten, Russian architect Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach, Austrian architect Étienne Maurice Falconet, French sculptor Jean-Honoré Fragonard, French painter Thomas Gainsborough, English painter Francisco de Goya, Spanish painter Jean-Baptiste Greuze, French painter Giuseppe Grisoni, Italian painter Francesco Guardi, Italian painter Jacob Philipp Hackert, German painter Suzuki Harunobu, Japanese woodblock printer Johann Lukas von Hildebrandt, Austrian-Italian architect William Hogarth, English painter and engraver Matvey Kazakov, Russian architect Georg Wenzeslaus von Knobelsdorff, German painter and architect Alexander Kokorinov, Russian architect Mikhail Ivanovich Kozlovsky, Russian sculptor Jean-Baptiste Lemoyne, French sculptor, student of his father Jean-Louis Lemoyne, French sculptor Dmitry Levitzky, Russian painter Jean-Étienne Liotard, Swiss painter Robert Le Lorrain, French sculptor Ivan Martos, Russian sculptor Yuan Mei, Chinese painter, poet, essayist Luis Egidio Meléndez, Spanish painter Antoine Ignace Melling, French-German painter, architect Louis Montoyer, Belgian architect Giovanni Paolo Panini, Italian painter Giovanni Battista Piranesi, Italian painter Matthäus Daniel Pöppelmann, German architect (Saxony) Gai Qi, Chinese painter, poet Bartolomeo Rastrelli, Italian-born Russian architect Joshua Reynolds, English painter Giacomo Quarenghi, Italian-born Russian architect Francisco Salzillo, Spanish sculptor Gilbert Stuart, American painter Nishikawa Sukenobu, Japanese printmaker, teacher Giovanni Battista Tiepolo, Venetian painter Jiang Tingxi, Chinese artist and scholar Domenico Trezzini, Italian-born Russian architect Kitagawa Utamaro, Japanese printmaker and painter Luigi Vanvitelli, Italian architect Juan de Villanueva, Spanish architect Antoine Watteau, French painter Mikhail Zemtsov, Russian architect Writers, poets [edit ] Jane Austen, English writer Anna Laetitia Barbauld, English Poet, essayist, and children's author Pierre Beaumarchais, French writer Bernardin de St. Pierre, French writer Nicolas Boileau-Despréaux, French poet and literary critic James Boswell, Scottish biographer Frances Burney, English novelist Robert Burns, Scottish poet Giacomo Casanova, Venetian adventurer, writer and womanizer Pierre Choderlos de Laclos, French writer Daniel Defoe, English novelist and journalist Gavrila Derzhavin, Russian poet Liang Desheng, Chinese poet and writer Maria Edgeworth, Anglo-Irish novelist Henry Fielding, English novelist Bernard Le Bovier de Fontenelle, French writer Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, German writer Oliver Goldsmith, Anglo-Irish writer, poet, children's writer, and playwright Thomas Gray, English poet, scholar, and educator Eliza Haywood, English writer Wu Jingzi, Chinese writer Samuel Johnson, British writer, lexicographer, poet, and literary critic Ferenc Kazinczy, Hungarian writer Ivan Krylov, Russian fabulist Pierre Choderlos de Laclos, French writer Charlotte Lennox, English novelist and poet Matthew Lewis, English novelist and playwright Sadhak Kamalakanta, Indian poet Henry Mackenzie, Scottish novelist Jean-Paul Marat, French journalist Pierre de Marivaux, French writer Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos, Spanish writer Yuan Mei, Chinese poet, scholar and artist Honoré Mirabeau, French writer and politician John Newbery, English children's literature publisher Alexander Pope, English poet Olaudah Equiano, Eboe writer and abolitionist Abbe Prevost, French writer Ann Radcliffe, English novelist Alexander Radishchev, Russian writer Samuel Richardson, English novelist Li Ruzhen, Chinese novelist Marquis de Sade, French writer and philosopher Ramprasad Sen, Bengali poet and singer Friedrich Schiller, German writer Walter Scott, Scottish novelist and poet Christopher Smart, English poet and actor Robert Southey, English poet and biographer Hester Thrale, English memoirist Vasily Trediakovsky, Russian poet and playwright Charlotte Turner Smith, English writer Pu Songling, Chinese short story writer Laurence Sterne, Anglo-Irish writer Jonathan Swift, Anglo-Irish satirist and Church of Ireland Dean Ueda Akinari, Japanese writer Voltaire, French writer and philosopher Horace Walpole, English writer and politician Mary Wollstonecraft, British writer and feminist Cao Xueqin, Chinese writer Philosophers, theologians [edit ] Jonathan Edwards, American theologian and philosopher Arai Hakuseki, Japanese scholar, writer and politician Cesare Beccaria, Italian philosopher and politician Jeremy Bentham, English philosopher and reformer George Berkeley, Irish empiricist philosopher Edmund Burke, British statesman and philosopher Étienne Bonnot de Condillac, French philosopher Marquis de Condorcet, French philosopher Frederick Cornwallis, Archbishop of Canterbury Erasmus Darwin, English philosopher, poet and scientist Denis Diderot, French writer and philosopher William Godwin, English philosopher and novelist Aaron Halle-Wolfssohn, German writer, Jewish theologian, translator, and professor Johann Gottfried Herder, German philosopher, writer, and critic Thomas Herring, Archbishop of Canterbury Baron d'Holbach, French-German philosopher and writer David Hume, Scottish philosopher Matthew Hutton, Archbishop of Canterbury Immanuel Kant, German philosopher Kamo no Mabuchi, Japanese philosopher Charles-Louis, French philosopher and writer William Law, English theologian Gotthold Ephraim Lessing, German philosopher and writer Alphonsus Liguori, Italian bishop, founder of Redemptorists, Saint Joseph de Maistre, Italian philosopher and diplomat Moses Mendelssohn, German philosopher Charles de Secondat (Montesquieu), French thinker John Moore, Archbishop of Canterbury Motoori Norinaga, Japanese philosopher and scholar Thomas Paine, English philosopher Elihu Palmer, American deist Thomas Percy, English bishop and editor Joseph Perl, German writer, Jewish theologian, and educator John Potter, Archbishop of Canterbury Jean-Jacques Rousseau, French writer and philosopher Thomas Secker, Archbishop of Canterbury Seraphim of Sarov, Russian theologian Sugita Genpaku, Japanese scholar and translator Emanuel Swedenborg, Swedish scientist, thinker and mystic Thomas Tenison, Archbishop of Canterbury Christian Thomasius, German philosopher and jurist Baal Shem Tov, Ukrainian rabbi Giambattista Vico, Italian philosopher Muhammad ibn Abd al Wahhab, Arab Islamic theologian and founder of Wahhabism William Wake, Archbishop of Canterbury John Wesley, English theologian, founder of Methodism Nikolaus Ludwig von Zinzendorf, German religious writer and bishop Scientists, researchers [edit ] Maria Gaetana Agnesi, Italian mathematician Jean le Rond d'Alembert, French mathematician, physicist and encyclopedist Joseph Banks, English botanist Laura Bassi, Italian scientist, the first European female college teacher [29 ] Daniel Bernoulli, Swiss mathematician and physicist Roger Joseph Boscovich, physicist, astronomer, mathematician, philosopher, diplomat, poet, and Jesuit Comte de Buffon, French scientist Anders Celsius, Swedish astronomer Anders Chydenius, Finnish philosopher and economist Alexis Clairaut, French mathematician James Cook, English navigator, explorer and cartographer Eugenio Espejo, Ecuadorian scientist Leonhard Euler, Swiss mathematician Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit, German physicist and engineer George Fordyce, Scottish physician and chemist Carl Friedrich Gauss, German mathematician, physicist and astronomer Edward Gibbon, English historian Edward Jenner, English inventor of vaccination William Jones, English philologist Nikolai Karamzin, Russian historian Ivan Kulibin, Russian inventor Joseph Louis Lagrange, Italian-French mathematician and physicist Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, French naturalist, biologist Pierre Simon Laplace, French physicist and mathematician Antoine Lavoisier, French chemist, considered father of modern chemistry John Law, Scottish economist Pan Lei, Chinese scholar and mathematician Adrien-Marie Legendre, French mathematician Carolus Linnaeus, Swedish biologist Mikhail Lomonosov, Russian scientist Edmond Malone, Irish literary scholar Thomas Malthus, English economist Pierre Louis Maupertuis, French mathematician Peter Simon Pallas, German-Russian zoologist and botanist Joseph Priestley, dissenting minister and chemist René Antoine Ferchault de Réaumur, French scientist François Quesnay, French economist John Smeaton, civil engineer and physicist Adam Smith, Scottish economist and philosopher Vasily Tatishchev, Russian historian and ethnographer Anne-Robert-Jacques Turgot, Baron de Laune, French economist Antonio de Ulloa, Spanish scientist and explorer James Watt, Scottish scientist and inventor John Whitehurst, English geologist Dai Zhen, Chinese mathematician, geographer, phonologist and philosopher Carl Wilhelm Scheele, Swedish chemist (discovered oxygen) Henry Cavendish, chemist (recognized Hydrogen as its own elemental substance) Joseph Black, Scottish chemist (discovered carbon dioxide) Outlaws [edit ] Maurice Benyovszky, Slovak adventurer, "King of Madagaskar" Anne Bonny, Irish pirate Alessandro Cagliostro, Italian adventurer and occultist Robert-François Damiens, French domestic worker whose attempted assassination of King Louis XV Olivier Levasseur, French pirate Samuel Mason, American Revolutionary War soldier and river pirate/ highwayman Yemelyan Pugachev, Russian cossack and rebel leader John Rackham (Calico Jack), English pirate Mary Read, English pirate Bartholomew Roberts, Welsh pirate Count of St. Germain, adventurer, alchemist and occultist Princess Tarakanoff, Russian adventurer Edward Teach (Blackbeard), English pirate Inventions, discoveries, introductions [edit ] Literary and philosophical achievements [edit ] 1703: by The Love Suicides at Sonezaki Chikamatsu first performed 1704– 1717: translated into French by One Thousand and One Nights Antoine Galland. The work becomes immensely popular throughout Europe. 1704: by A Tale of a Tub Jonathan Swift first published 1712: by The Rape of the Lock Alexander Pope (publication of first version) 1719: by Robinson Crusoe Daniel Defoe 1725: The New Science by Giambattista Vico 1726: by Gulliver's Travels Jonathan Swift 1728: by The Dunciad Alexander Pope (publication of first version) 1744: becomes one of the first A Little Pretty Pocket-Book books marketed for children 1748: ( Chushingura The Treasury of Loyal Retainers), popular Japanese puppet play, composed 1748: by Clarissa Samuel Richardson 1749: by The History of Tom Jones, a Foundling Henry Fielding 1751: by Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard Thomas Gray published 1751– 1785: The French Encyclopédie 1755: by A Dictionary of the English Language Samuel Johnson 1759: by Candide Voltaire 1759: by The Theory of Moral Sentiments Adam Smith 1759– 1767: by Tristram Shandy Laurence Sterne 1762: by Emile: or, On Education Jean-Jacques Rousseau 1762: by The Social Contract, Or Principles of Political Right Jean-Jacques Rousseau 1774: by The Sorrows of Young Werther Goethe first published 1776: ( Ugetsu Monogatari Tales of Moonlight and Rain) by Ueda Akinari 1776: , foundation of the modern theory of economy, was published by The Wealth of Nations Adam Smith 1776– 1789: was published by The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire Edward Gibbon 1779: published by Amazing Grace John Newton 1779– 1782: by Lives of the Most Eminent English Poets Samuel Johnson 1781: by Critique of Pure Reason Immanuel Kant (publication of first edition) 1781: by The Robbers Friedrich Schiller first published 1782: by Les Liaisons dangereuses Pierre Choderlos de Laclos 1786: Poems, Chiefly in the Scottish Dialect by Robert Burns 1787– 1788: by Federalist Papers Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison 1788: by Critique of Practical Reason Immanuel Kant 1789: by Songs of Innocence William Blake 1790: by Journey from St. Petersburg to Moscow Alexander Radishchev 1790: by Reflections on the Revolution in France Edmund Burke 1791: by Rights of Man Thomas Paine 1794: by Songs of Experience William Blake 1798: by Lyrical Ballads William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge 1798: published by An Essay on the Principle of Population Thomas Malthus (mid-18th century): (authorship attributed to The Dream of the Red Chamber Cao Xueqin), one of the most famous Chinese novels Musical works [edit ] 1711: , Rinaldo Handel's first opera for the London stage, premiered 1721: by Brandenburg concertos J.S. Bach 1723: , violin concertos by The Four Seasons Antonio Vivaldi, composed 1724: by St John Passion J.S. Bach 1727: composed by St Matthew Passion J.S. Bach 1733: , first opera by Hippolyte et Aricie Jean-Philippe Rameau 1741: for Goldberg Variations harpsichord published by Bach 1742: , oratorio by Messiah Handel premiered in Dublin 1749: by Mass in B Minor J.S. Bach assembled in current form 1751: by The Art of Fugue J.S. Bach 1762: , first "reform opera" by Orfeo ed Euridice Gluck, performed in Vienna 1786: , opera by The Marriage of Figaro Mozart 1787: , opera by Don Giovanni Mozart 1788: composed by Jupiter Symphony (Symphony No.41) Mozart 1791: , opera by The Magic Flute Mozart 1791– 1795: London symphonies by Haydn 1798: , oratorio by The Creation Haydn first performed Decades and years [edit ] References [edit ] ^ Anderson, M. S. (1979). Historians and the Eighteenth-Century Europe, 1715–1789. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-822548-5. OCLC 185538307. ^ Ribeiro, Aileen (2002). Dress in Eighteenth-Century Europe 1715-1789 (revised edition). Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-09151-9. OCLC 186413657. ^ Baines, Paul (2004). The Long 18th Century. London: Arnold. ISBN 978-0-340-81372-0. ^ Marshall, P. J. (Editor) (2001). The Oxford History of the British Empire: Volume II: The Eighteenth Century (Oxford History of the British Empire). Oxford University Press, USA. ISBN 978-0-19-924677-9. OCLC 174866045. , "Introduction" by P. J. Marshall, page 1 ^ O'Gorman, Frank (1997). The Long Eighteenth Century: British Political and Social History 1688-1832 (The Arnold History of Britain Series). A Hodder Arnold Publication. ISBN 978-0-340-56751-7. OCLC 243883533. ^ "War of the Spanish Succession, 1701-1714". Historyofwar.org . Retrieved 2009-04-25. ^ Ricklefs (1991), page 82 ^ Historic uk – heritage of britain accommodation guide (2007-05-03). "The history of Scotland – The Act of Union 1707". Historic-uk.com. 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OCLC 123123201. , "The Philosopher's Beard: Women and Gender in Science" by Londra Schiebinger, pages 184–210 ^ Encyclopædia Britannica's Great Inventions, Encyclopædia Britannica ^ Meggs, Philip B. A History of Graphic Design. (1998) John Wiley & Sons, Inc. p 146 ISBN 978-0-471-29198-5 Further reading [edit ] Jeremy Black and Roy Porter, eds. A Dictionary of Eighteenth-Century World History (1994) 890pp Klekar, Cynthia. “Fictions of the Gift: Generosity and Obligation in Eighteenth-Century English Literature.” Innovative Course Design Winner. American Society for Eighteenth-Century Studies: Wake Forest University, 2004. < http://asecs.press.jhu.edu>. Refereed. The Wallace Collection, London, houses one of the finest collections of 18th-century decorative arts from France, England and Italy, including paintings, furniture, porcelain and gold boxes.