187th Infantry Regiment (United States)

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187th Infantry Regiment
187INF COA.gif
Coat Of Arms
Active1943–present
CountryUnited States
AllegianceRegular Army
BranchInfantry
Garrison/HQFort Campbell
NicknameRakkasans[1]
MottoNe Desit Virtus ("Let Valor Not Fail")
Infantry ColorsBlue and White
EngagementsWorld War II
Korean War
Vietnam War
War in Southwest Asia
Afghanistan Campaign
Iraq Campaign
Insignia
Distinctive unit insignia187INF DUI.gif
 
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187th Infantry Regiment
187INF COA.gif
Coat Of Arms
Active1943–present
CountryUnited States
AllegianceRegular Army
BranchInfantry
Garrison/HQFort Campbell
NicknameRakkasans[1]
MottoNe Desit Virtus ("Let Valor Not Fail")
Infantry ColorsBlue and White
EngagementsWorld War II
Korean War
Vietnam War
War in Southwest Asia
Afghanistan Campaign
Iraq Campaign
Insignia
Distinctive unit insignia187INF DUI.gif
U.S. Infantry Regiments
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186th Infantry Regiment188th Infantry Regiment
Shoulder patch for the 187th Regimental Combat Team (Airborne)

The 187th Infantry Regiment (Rakkasans)[1] is a regiment of the 101st Airborne Division (Air Assault) of the United States Army. The nickname "Rakkasans" is derived from the Japanese word for umbrella. The name was given to the 187th during its tour in occupied Japan following World War II. When a translator dealing with local Japanese dignitaries was trying to explain what their unit was trained to do (and not knowing the Japanese word for "airborne soldiers") he used the phrase "falling down umbrella men", or rakkasan. Amused by the clumsy word, the locals began to call the troopers by that nickname; it soon stuck and became a point of pride for the unit.

Currently, the 1st Battalion – 187th Infantry and the 3rd Battalion – 187th Infantry are active in the 101st Airborne's 3rd Brigade Combat Team.

Contents

World War II and aftermath

The regiment was originally constituted as the 187th Glider Infantry Regiment[2] on 12 November 1942, and activated on 25 February 1943 at Camp Mackall, North Carolina. It was originally a two battalion glider regiment assigned to the 11th Airborne Division, the men of the 187th trained both as glider and parachute troops. They moved to Camp Polk on 1944-01-09 for glider training. The regiment Staged at Camp Stoneman, California on 1944-04-29, and departed from the San Francisco Port of Embarkation on 1944-05-06.

The regiment arrived in New Guinea on 1944-05-29 and joined the New Guinea Campaign. The regiment departed New Guinea on 1944-11-11, and arrived on Leyte on 1944-11-18 to join the Leyte Campaign.

The Regiment left Leyte, and joined the Luzon Campaign by assaulting Nasugbu Point Luzon on 1945-01-31, blocking Japanese forces as part of the advance on Manila from the south. From then until April the 187th fought their way from Nichols Field, Fort William McKinley, and Manila to Mount Macolod and Malepunyo.

In May the 187th moved into Lipa to refit, rebuild, and prepare for Operation Downfall, the planned invasion of Japan. At this time the 3rd Battalion was formed and the regiment was redesignated a para-glider regiment.

The regiment was attached to the Provost Marshal General, U.S. Army Forces Far East from 1945-06-01 through 1945-07-27 at Manila. The campaigns in the Philippines were declared completed on 1945-07-04, and the regiment moved to Okinawa on 12 August 1945 for occupation duty. This is where the unit gained its name; Rakkasan, when it was the only unit to parachute onto Japanese soil at the time. Then with the war coming to an end on 1945-08-14, the regiment subsequently moved to Japan on 30 August 1945, and was alleged to be the first foreign ground combat unit to enter that nation. [3]

In April 1949 the regiment returned to the United States and was stationed at what was then Camp Campbell, Kentucky.[4] It was redesignated the 187th Airborne Infantry Regiment on 1949-06-30 and became part of the 11th Airborne Division.[2] In early 1950 the 187th participated in "Operation Swarmer," the largest peacetime airborne maneuver in history.

Korean War

403rd TCW C-119s drop the 187th RCT over Korea, 1952.

The 187th was selected as an airborne regimental combat team responding to the crisis in Korea. On 1 August 1950 the regiment became the 187th Airborne Regimental Combat Team (ARCT) when supporting units were added and deployed to Japan, arriving on 20 September 1950. The advance party of the Third Battalion of the Rakkasans was the first to arrive in Korea, arriving at Kimpo Airfield on 23 September. On 24 September, it was placed under the operational control of the First Marine Division, relieving the 2d Battalion of the 7th Marine Regiment, arriving almost a week after Douglas MacArthur's surprise landing at Inchon on 17 September 1950.

One month later, on 20 October 1950, the regiment made successful combat parachute assaults near the towns of Sukchon and Sunchon, North Korea as part of the Battle of Yongju. The published purpose of that drop was to capture members of the North Korean Government fleeing Pyongyang and also to free American POWs being moved from Pyongyang toward the Manchurian border. Neither objective was realized. Followed by battles at Suan, Wonju, Kaesong, Munsan-ni, and Inje.

The 187th led the second and last parachute assault in Korea on 23 March 1951(Operation Tomahawk).

Under BG Thomas J. H. Trapnell, it redeployed to Japan on 26 June 1951 where it became a strategic reserve but returned to Korea on 24 May 1952 to assist in the suppression of the prisoner rebellion at the Geoje POW Camp (aka. Koje Pow Camp during the Korean War) where prisoners had forcibly seized and held Brigadier General Francis Dodd, camp commandant, hostage for 4 days from May 7, 1952 (Koje Island Incident). After this, it once more returned to Japan on 18 October 1952 but made its final return to Korea on 22 June 1953. The unit returned the United States in July 1955 and, the following year, became part of the newly reactivated 101st Airborne Division, Fort Campbell, KY.[2]

The 187th Airborne Regimental Combat Team consisted of the following units: The following units were assigned by General Order 34 (Confidential) Headquarters 11th Airborne Division.

The following units were added on 23 August 1950 by General Order 41, 11th Airborne Division dated 22 August 1950.

The following units were attached on 26 August 1950 per General Order 42, Headquarters 11th Airborne Division dated 25 August 1950.

On 28 August 1950, Operations Order Number 1, IX Corps, the 2348th Quartermaster Air Packaging and Resupply Company was attached to the Command of Colonel Bowen, Sr.

Attached units

Note: Many personnel from the 511PIR in the 11th Airborne Division were transferred to the 187th ARCT to bring it up to full strength for overseas deployment.[5]

During the Korean War, three members of the Regiment were awarded the Medal of Honor, Lester Hammond, Jr., Rodolfo P. Hernandez and Richard G. Wilson.

The 1950s and early 1960s were a turbulent time for 3rd Battalion, 187th Infantry. It returned to the US in 1955, this time to Fort Bragg, North Carolina.[6] As part of a larger realignment of the Army, under the Pentomic Division Concept, the Iron Rakkasans road marched to Fort Campbell in February 1956 to serve as the nucleus of the newly reactivated 101st Airborne Division.[7]

Post Korean War and air mobility

When the Pentomic concept that replaced regiments and battalions with battle groups was introduced in 1957, Companies A, B, and C of the 187th Airborne Infantry Regiment were redesignated as HHCs of the 1st, 2d, and 3d Airborne Battle Groups, 187th Infantry, respectively. The 1st ABG, 187th Inf was assigned to the 11th Airborne Division in Germany from 1 March 1957 to 1 July 1958, when the 11th was inactivated and reflagged as the 24th Infantry Division. During its assignment to the 24th it was involved in the Lebanon intervention. On 8 February 1959 it was relieved from the 24th, rotated back to the United States and was assigned to the 82nd Airborne Division at Fort Bragg, NC. Its colors were inactivated on 25 May 1964 and concurrently consolidated with the 1st Battalion, 187th Infantry (constituted and activated 1 February 1964 at Fort Benning, Georgia, as an element of the 11th Air Assault Division, and the consolidated unit designated as the 1st Battalion, 187th Infantry, an element of the 11th Air Assault Division (Test) at Fort Benning, GA. It was inactivated on 30 June 1965 when the 11th Air Assault Division and 2nd Infantry Division were combined to form the 1st Cavalry Division (Airmobile), during which time the elements of both the 11th and 2nd were reflagged with new designations.

The 2nd ABG, 187th Infantry remained assigned to the 101st Airborne Division and was inactivated on 1 February 1964 when the Army abandoned the Pentomic structure in favor of brigades and battalions.

The 3rd ABG, 187th Infantry was not active during the Pentomic era. The colors were redesignated on 1 February 1963 as HHC, 3d Battalion, 187th Infantry, assigned to the 11th Air Assault Division (Test) at Fort Benning, GA, and activated on 7 February 1963.[8] Over the next year, 3rd Battalion, 187th Infantry Regiment served as a test unit to help validate the Army’s airmobile concept. It was relieved from the 11th on 1 February 1964 and the colors were assigned to the 101st Airborne Division at Fort Campbell, KY. There was no transfer of troops or equipment; instead, the existing 3–187th at Fort Benning was reflagged as 1–187th.

Vietnam War

The Iron Rakkasans moved back to Fort Campbell, Kentucky in February 1964, to serve as part of the 3rd Brigade, 101st Airborne Division.[9] In December 1967 the 3rd Battalion deployed to Vietnam, alongside 1st and 2nd Battalion, 506th Infantry Regiment.[10] Over the next four years the Iron Rakkasans fought in twelve major campaigns, conducting numerous air assaults and search and destroy missions. During one such mission in March 1968 Captain Paul W. Bucha, commander of D Company, received the Congressional Medal of Honor when he crawled through a hail of fire to single-handedly destroy a machine gun bunker with grenades near Phuoc Vinh, Vietnam.[11] When the battalion colors returned to Fort Campbell the unit had distinguished itself by earning two Valorous Unit Awards, and its third and fourth Presidential Unit Citations for the battles of Trang Bang and Dong Ap Bia Mountain (commonly known as “Hamburger Hill”).[12] The Iron Rakkasans emerged from the Vietnam War as the country’s most highly decorated airborne battalion.

Assignments in South Vietnam Source:[13]

Administrative
Headquarters
Forward
Headquarters
ArrivalMajor Command
3/187th Infantry Regiment arrived in Vietnam on 1967-12-16
Phuoc VinhPhuoc VinhDecember, 19673/101 Airborne Division
Dak ToJune, 1968
Cu ChiJuly, 1968
Long BinhOctober, 19683/101 Airborne Division (Airmobile)
Bien HoaPhong Dien[disambiguation needed]November, 1968
Ta BatJuly, 1969
A Shau ValleyBerchtesgaden Fire Support BaseAugust, 1969
Bien HoaTa BatSeptember, 1969
Phong DienOctober, 1969
Mai LocNovember, 1969
Phong DienPhong DienDecember, 1969
HuếPhu BaiSeptember, 1970
Camp CarrollCamp CarrollMarch, 1971
April, 19711/5th Infantry Division (Mechanized)
HuếPhu BaiMay, 19713/101st Airborne Division (Airmobile)
August, 1971US Army Forces, Military Region 2
November, 19713/101st Airborne Division (Airmobile)
3/187th Infantry Regiment departed Vietnam on 1971-12-10

The 3/187th Inf. exploits from 10–20 May 1969 on hill 937 in the A Shau Valley were later put on the silver screen in 1987 using the hills nickname Hamburger Hill as the title. For this action the Unit received the Presidential Unit Citation for the valor shown over 11 assaults on the hill.

Post Vietnam

When the 101st returned from Viet Nam, most of its personnel in the rank of staff sergeant and below were discharged upon arrival at Oakland, California, or Seattle, Washington. What remained largely consisted of a command group of staff officers and senior NCOs. The division settled into buildings recently vacated by the "U.S. Army Training Center, Fort Campbell, Kentucky."

When the 101st was rebuilt, the separate 173rd Airborne Brigade was inactivated and its assets used to form the 3rd Brigade as an Airborne unit consisting of 1–503rd INF, 2–503rd INF, and 3–187th INF. The partial Airborne capability also extended to supporting units of the division (i.e., one company of three in a supporting unit was Airborne). This lasted only until April 1974, when jump status for the 3rd Brigade was terminated, and the Airmobile Badge (renamed Air Assault Badge later that year) was introduced.

In October 1983 the 1st, 2d, and 4th Battalions, 187th Infantry, were activated, and on 21 November 1984 a 5th Battalion was activated. The 1st and 2nd Battalions were assigned to the 193rd Infantry Brigade in Panama and the 3rd, 4th and 5th were assigned to the 101st Airborne Division (Air Assault) at Fort Campbell. The 4th and 5th were created by reflagging the existing 1–503rd and 2–503rd, the colors of which were soon reactivated in Korea within the 2nd Infantry Division. The Panama-based 2–187th included one Airborne company (Moatengators) within the battalion, and later jump status was expanded to the entire battalion. 2/187th was the last Airborne Battalion of the 187th. During a realignment of the United States Army's combat forces in 1987 the 1st and 2d Battalions were inactivated and the 5th and 4th Battalions were reflagged as the 1st and 2d Battalions, respectively. Upon moving to the 101st, the 187th became Air Assault.

From September 1988 through March 1989, 1st Battalion reorganized as Task Force 1–187 and deployed to the Sinai Desert, Egypt as the United States' contingent of the Multinational Force and Observers peacekeeping mission .

Gulf War

In September 1990 the Rakkasans were deployed to Saudi Arabia during Operation Desert Shield. In February 1991 two companies from the 1st Battalion captured 434 Iraqi soldiers during the air assault into Objective Weber and on 25 February the Rakkasans conducted the deepest and largest air assault operation in history. Striking 155 miles (249 km) behind enemy lines into the Euphrates river valley, the assault led to the timely defeat of Iraqi forces and ensured a total allied victory. The unit moved farther north than any other unit during Operation Desert Storm.

Between the Gulf War and GWOT

From 1991 to 1993 the 3/187 was commanded by Lt Colonel David H. Petraeus who renamed the battalion the Iron Rakkasans after the physical training test he created. CSM Donald Purdy was the Battalion Sergeant Major during this time. Spc James Paterson was known for being the best CSM Purdy impersonator and actually performed the impersonation for CSM Purdy.

In 1995 The Iron Rakkasans was redesignated as Task Force 3–187 and deployed to the Sinai Peninsula in July 1995. The Iron Rakassans were responsible for the southern portion of Zone C and based at South Camp, Sharm el Shiek, Egypt. During the deployment, they were instrumental in the recovery of casualties from an accident near one of the sector control centers and evacuating them to hospitals utilizing Multinational Forces Helicopters. On 23 November 1995, a 7.1 earthquake hit the Sinai Peninsula. Again the Iron Rakkasans performed road recon and rescue operations throughout the peninsula. For the Iron Rakkasans actions during their deployment, they earned an Army Superior Unit Award for their actions during the deployment. The unit returned to the United States in January 1996.

In September 1996 through January 1997 elements of Raider Rakkasan, A co. 2nd BN / 187th deployed to Saudi Arabia in support of Operation DESERT FOCUS, providing force protection for U.S. personnel in support of US air assets in Saudi Arabia relocated from Dhahran and from Riyadh to the remote Prince Sultan Air Base, Camp Eagle Town II. The move's purpose was force protection, and came in the wake of the 25 June 1996 terrorist bombing at Khobar Towers which killed 19 airmen, and wounded many more. U.S. and Saudi Arabian officials agreed to split the $200 million cost of relocating more than 4,000 US troops. Alpha co. 2nd BN /187th Infantry was awarded the Armed Forces Expeditionary Medal and the Army Superior Unit Award.

Reference: http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/ops/desert_focus.htm

Afghanistan and Iraq

Soldiers of 3rd Battalion run to a Black Hawk helicopter after conducting a search for weapons caches in Albu Issa, Iraq.
Rakkasan Print OIF IV. Created by Brooke Haarer.[14]
Rakkasans OIF VI 07-08. Created by Brooke Haarer.[14]

In early 2002 the Rakkasans deployed to Afghanistan in support of Operation Enduring Freedom where they most notably participated in Operation Anaconda in the eastern Shah-i-Khot region. The 2nd Battalion (Raider Rakkasans) as well as C and D company 1st Battalion(Leader Rakkasan) were awarded the Valorous Unit Award for combat valor during this period.

In 2003, the Rakkasans, commanded by Colonel Mike Linnington, were deployed for the 2003 invasion of Iraq. The 3rd Battalion, 187th Infantry was temporarily attached to the 3rd Infantry Division and accompanied them during the push into Baghdad. While attached to the 3rd Infantry Division 3rd Battalion cleared the Republican Guard Headquarters and Baghdad International Airport in April 2003. For this action the battalion earned an unprecedented fifth Presidential Unit Citation. Following the invasion 3rd Battalion conducted six months of security operations near Rabia, Iraq, on the Syrian border, to block the flow of foreign fighters. Prior to returning stateside in January 2004 the Iron Rakkasans conducted combat operations in Husaybah, Iraq with the 3d Armored Cavalry Regiment. Once back in the US the battalion added a Forward Support Company.

Before moving north to Ninawa Governorate (province), the Rakkasans conducted extensive stability and support operations in Baghdad's southeast sector. The Rakkasans conducted the majority of their operations in the northwest of Ninevah province with the 1st Battalion, 187th Infantry focusing efforts around Tallafar, Zumar, and Avgani. The 2nd Battalion, 187th Infantry worked primarily around Sinjar and Biaj, and the 3rd Battalion was headquartered in Rabia.

They returned to Fort Campbell in 2004 and redeployed to Iraq again in the fall of 2005. During their second tour in Iraq, they focused operations in Salah ad Din province, with the 3rd Battalion, and 1/33 Cavalry regiment temporarily detached for operations in Baghdad and a Ninevah province. The brigade commander was Colonel Michael D. Steele. It was during this deployment that the brigade conducted "Operation Swarmer", one of the largest combat operations in Iraq since the initial invasion. Rakkasans worked with Iraqi Army soldiers throughout Salah ad Din province defeating insurgents, Al Qaeda cells, and uncovering numerous caches of weapons and explosives.[15]

In October 2007 the Rakkasans again deployed to Iraq in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom 07-09 led by brigade commander Col. Dominic Caraccilo. The brigade was headquartered at Camp Striker near Baghdad with an area of operation that extended from the Euphrates river in the west to the Tigris in the east and ran south from Baghdad to Al-Mahmudiyah. This area included the Triangle of Death which had seen significant violence in the war and was often a staging area for the insurgency. As a unit following the surge, the Rakkasans manned combat outposts throughout the rural areas to provide local security for the populace, partner with Iraqi defense and police forces, and facilitate numerous economic and developmental projects. When the Rakkasans redeployed to Fort, Campbell at the end of their tour in November 2008, they did not transfer authority to an incoming U.S. military unit. Instead, the area became the responsibility of the partnered Iraqi forces marking a significant step in the transference of security and authority from coalition forces to the Iraqis.[16][17]

Heraldry, lineage, and honors

Coat of arms

The symbolism includes: Slang term : Angels From Hell, For retired insignia.

  1. Blue is for the Infantry.
  2. The partition line of the pale heraldically representing clouds and the doubled-handed sword, an ancient infantry weapon, symbolizes the character of the organization as an Airborne Infantry unit.
  1. The heart on the lion's shoulder points out the action on Purple Heart Hill.
  2. The winged sword with three notches in the blade signifies the unit's score of three combat jumps, one in the Philippines and two in Korea.
  3. The red diamond shape is the insignia of the city of Yokohama, Japan, where the 187th landed as the first American combat troops and began four years of occupation duty.
  4. The seven-pointed star, divided in the manner of the Korean Taeguk stands for the unit's seven campaigns in that country.

The coat of arms was originally approved on 1952-12-15 for the 187th Airborne Infantry Regiment. It was redesignated for the 187th Infantry Regiment on 1958-02-07.

Lineage

  1. Regimental Headquarters Relieved from assignment to the 101st Airborne Division; concurrently reorganized and redesignated as the 187th Infantry Regiment, a parent regiment under the Combat Arms Regimental System.
  2. 2nd Battalion Reorganized and redesignated Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 2nd Airborne Battle Group, 187th Infantry, and remained assigned to the 101st Airborne Division (organic elements concurrently constituted and activated)
  3. 3rd Battalion Inactivated at Fort Campbell, Kentucky, and relieved from assignment to the 101st Airborne Division; concurrently redesignated as Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 3rd Airborne Battle Group, 187th Infantry
  1. 1st Battalion, 187th Infantry Regiment constituted and activated at Fort Benning, Georgia, as an element of the 11th Air Assault Division.
  2. 2nd Battle Group relieved from assignment to the 101st Airborne Division
  3. 3rd Battalion Relieved from assignment to the 11th Air Assault Division and assigned to the 101st Airborne Division
  1. 187th Infantry Regiment Regiment Withdrawn from the Combat Arms Regimental System and reorganized under the United States Army Regimental System
  2. 1st Battalion Relieved from assignment to the 11th Airborne Division, assigned to the 193rd Infantry Brigade, and activated in Panama.
  3. 2nd Battle Group Redesignated as the 2d Battalion, 187th Infantry, assigned to the 193rd Infantry Brigade, and activated in Panama
  1. 1st Battalion activated at Fort Campbell, Kentucky and assigned to 101st Airborne Division.
  2. 2nd Battalion activated at Fort Campbell, Kentucky and assigned to 101st Airborne Division.

Campaign participation credit

  1. New Guinea;
  2. Leyte;
  3. Luzon (with arrowhead)
  1. UN Offensive (with arrowhead);
  2. CCF Intervention;
  3. First UN Counteroffensive (with arrowhead);
  4. CCF Spring Offensive;
  5. Korea, Summer-Fall 1952;
  6. Korea, Summer 1953
  1. Counteroffensive, Phase III;
  2. Tet Counteroffensive;
  3. Counteroffensive, Phase IV;
  4. Counteroffensive, Phase V;
  5. Counteroffensive, Phase VI;
  6. Tet 69/Counteroffensive;
  7. Summer-Fall 1969;
  8. Winter-Spring 1970;
  9. Sanctuary Counteroffensive;
  10. Counteroffensive, Phase VII;
  11. Consolidation I;
  12. Consolidation II
  1. Defense of Saudi Arabia;
  2. Liberation and Defense of Kuwait

Decorations

  1. TAGAYTAY RIDGE
  2. SUKCHON
  3. TRANG BANG
  4. DONG AP BIA MOUNTAIN
  1. INCHON
  1. BINH DUONG PROVINCE
  2. THUA THIEN PROVINCE
  3. OPERATION ANACONDA (OEF 1)
  1. VIETNAM 1968
  2. SOUTHWEST ASIA
  1. KOREA 1950–1952
  2. KOREA 1952–1953

Rakkasans

In film

The "Rakkasans" are portrayed in the 1987 movie Hamburger Hill. The 187th AIR was also portrayed in the 2003 movie "Big Fish"

See also

References

 This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Army Center of Military History document "187th Infantry Lineage and Honors".

  1. ^ a b "Special Unit Designations". United States Army Center of Military History. 21 April 2010. Archived from the original on 9 June 2010. http://www.history.army.mil/html/forcestruc/spdes-123-ra_ar.html. Retrieved 23 June 2010. 
  2. ^ a b c 187th Airborne
  3. ^ E.M. Flanagan Jr., Rakkasans(Novato: Presidio Press, 1997), 134.
  4. ^ E.M. Flanagan Jr., Rakkasans(Novato: Presidio Press, 1997), 140.
  5. ^ History of the 511th Airborne Regiment, The Drop Zone
  6. ^ E.M. Flanagan Jr., Rakkasans(Novato: Presidio Press, 1997), 255.
  7. ^ E.M. Flanagan Jr., Rakkasans(Novato: Presidio Press, 1997), 256–261.
  8. ^ E.M. Flanagan Jr., Rakkasans(Novato: Presidio Press, 1997), 263.
  9. ^ E.M. Flanagan Jr., Rakkasans(Novato: Presidio Press, 1997), 266.
  10. ^ E.M. Flanagan Jr., Rakkasans(Novato: Presidio Press, 1997), 269–270.
  11. ^ E.M. Flanagan Jr., Rakkasans(Novato: Presidio Press, 1997), 270.
  12. ^ E.M. Flanagan Jr., Rakkasans(Novato: Presidio Press, 1997), 282–301.
  13. ^ Stanton, Shelby (1981). Vietnam Order Of Battle. New York, New York: Galahad Books. pp. 396 w/Index. ISBN 0-88365-709-0. 
  14. ^ a b Rakkasan Prints
  15. ^ DefenseLINK press release
  16. ^ Fort Campbell Courier
  17. ^ Fort Campbell Courier
  18. ^ http://www.korean-war.com/187airborne.html

External links