This article is about the year 1736.
Year 1736 (MDCCXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar.
- Real Arissona, namesake of the U.S. state Arizona, is founded in what is now that state.
- Neustrelitz becomes the capital of Mecklenburg-Strelitz.
- Bushehr is founded in Persia.
- The Belgrade fortress is completed.
- George Hamilton, 1st Earl of Orkney, becomes the first Field Marshal of Great Britain.
- A fire in the Russian city of Saint Petersburg burns 2000 houses.
- Fifty-three houses in the English town of Stony Stratford are consumed by fire.
- One of the earliest records of use of a Bathing machine is made at Scarborough in England.
- Charles Marie de La Condamine, with François Fresneau Gataudière, makes the first scientific observations of rubber, in Ecuador.
- Leonhard Euler produces the first published proof of Fermat's "little theorem".
- Sir Isaac Newton's Method of Fluxions (1671), describing his method of differential calculus, is first published (posthumously) and Thomas Bayes publishes a defense of its logical foundations (anonymously).
- Muhammad ibn Abd al Wahhab writes the Kitab at-tawhidt, marking the beginning of Wahhabism.
- The Haidamakas raid the shtetl of Pavoloch, killing 35.
- January 7 – Andrew Adams, American judge (d. 1797)
- January 19 – James Watt, Scottish inventor (d. 1819)
- January 25 – Joseph Louis Lagrange, Italian-born mathematician (d. 1813)
- February 3 – Johann Georg Albrechtsberger, Austrian musician (d. 1809)
- February 29 – Ann Lee, American religious leader (d. 1784)
- May 10 – George Steevens, English literary critic (d. 1800)
- May 29 – Patrick Henry, American patriot (d. 1799)
- June 3 – Sir John Acton, 6th Baronet, Prime Minister of Naples (d. 1811)
- June 7 – Fermín Lasuén, Spanish missionary (d. 1803)
- June 14 – Charles-Augustin de Coulomb, French physicist (d. 1806)
- June 21 – Enoch Poor, American general (d. 1780)
- June 25 – John Horne Tooke, English politician and philologist (d. 1812)
- July – Juan Bautista de Anza, Governor of the Spanish Province of New Mexico (d. 1788)
- July 6 – Daniel Morgan, American pioneer, Congressman from Virginia, and general (d. 1802)
- August 9 – Louis Joseph, Prince of Condé (d. 1818)
- August 26 – Jean-Baptiste L. Romé de l'Isle, French geologist (d. 1790)
- September 16 – Carter Braxton, signer of the American Declaration of Independence (d. 1797)
- September 15 – Jean Sylvain Bailly, French astronomer (d. 1793)
- October 27 – James Macpherson, Scottish poet (d. 1796)
- date unknown
- January 31 – Filippo Juvara, Italian architect (b. 1678)
- February 7 – Stephen Gray, English dyer, astronomer, and scientist (b. 1666)
- March 16 – Giovanni Battista Pergolesi, Italian composer (b. 1710)
- March 25 – Nicholas Hawksmoor, British architect (b. c. 1661)
- April 24 – Prince Eugene of Savoy, French-born Austrian general (b. 1663)
- April 30 – Johann Albert Fabricius, German scholar and bibliographer (b. 1668)
- September 16 – Gabriel Fahrenheit, German physicist and inventor (b. 1686)
- December 10 – António Manoel de Vilhena, 66th Grandmaster of the Knights Hospitaller (b. 1663)
- December 26 – Antonio Caldara, Italian composer (b. 1670)
- date unknown