This article is about the year 1543. For the number, see 1543 (number)
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Year 1543 (MDXLIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. It is one of the years sometimes referred to as an "Annus mirabilis" because of its significant publications in science, considered the start of the scientific revolution.
- February 11 – King Henry VIII of England allies with Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, against France.
- February 21 – Battle of Wayna Daga: A joint Ethiopian-Portuguese force of 8,500 under Emperor Gelawdewos of Ethiopia defeats Imam Ahmad ibn Ibrihim al-Ghazi's army of over 14,000, ending the Ethiopian–Adal war.
- April – Campaign of Suleiman: Suleiman the Magnificent, Ottoman Emperor, revives the Little War in Hungary.
- May – Nicolaus Copernicus publishes De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres) in Nuremberg, offering mathematical arguments for the existence of the heliocentric universe, denying the geocentric model. Copernicus dies on May 24 in Frombork at the age of 70.
- June – Andreas Vesalius publishes De humani corporis fabrica (On the Fabric of the Human Body), revolutionising the science of human anatomy.
- January 18 (baptized) – Alfonso Ferrabosco, Italian composer (d. 1588)
- January 31 – Tokugawa Ieyasu, Japanese shogun (d. 1616)
- February 4 – Johannes Heurnius, Dutch physician (d. 1601)
- February 4 – Giovanni Francesco Fara, Writer (d. 1591)
- February 16 – Kanō Eitoku, Japanese painter (d. 1590)
- February 18 – Charles III, Duke of Lorraine (d. 1608)
- February 25 – Sharaf Khan Bidlisi, Emir of Bitlis (d. 1603)
- March 7 – John Casimir of the Palatinate-Simmern, German prince and reigning count palatine of Simmern (d. 1592)
- April 1 – François de Bonne, duc de Lesdiguières, Constable of France (d. 1626)
- April 11 – George John I, Count Palatine of Veldenz (d. 1592)
- May 2 – Jan Moretus, Belgian printer (d. 1610)
- June 8 – Petrus Albinus, German historian, local history researcher and poet (d. 1598)
- June 29 – Christine of Hesse, Duchess Consort of Holstein-Gottorp (1465-1486) (d. 1604)
- July 20 – Nils Svantesson Sture, Swedish diplomat (d. 1567)
- August 3 – Nicasius de Sille, Dutch diplomat (d. 1600)
- August 21 – Giovanni Bembo, Doge of Venice (d. 1618)
- September 14 – Claudio Acquaviva, Italian Jesuit (d. 1615)
- October 21 – Michael Hicks, English politician (d. 1612)
- November 2 – Kasper Franck, German theologian (d. 1584)
- November 8 – Lettice Knollys, Countess of Essex and later Countess of Leicester, lady-in-waiting to Elizabeth I of England (d. 1634)
- December 3 – Alessandro Riario, Cardinal Priest (d. 1585)
- December 29 – Catherine of Nassau-Dillenburg, daughter of William I (d. 1624)
- date unknown
- January 2 – Francesco Canova da Milano, Italian composer (b. 1497)
- January 3 – Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, Portuguese explorer (b. 1499)
- January 9 – Guillaume du Bellay, French diplomat and general (b. 1491)
- February 21 – Ahmad ibn Ibrihim al-Ghazi, Imam of Adal (in battle) (b. c. 1506)
- March 6 – Baccio D'Agnolo, Florentine woodcarver (b. 1460)
- May 24 – Nicolaus Copernicus, mathematician and astronomer (b. 1473)
- July 19 – Mary Boleyn, mistress of Kings Francis I of France and Henry VIII of England (b. 1500)
- September 20 – Thomas Manners, 1st Earl of Rutland (b. 1492)
- November 29 – Hans Holbein the Younger, German artist, active in England
- December 27
- date unknown