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In speech, the numbers 13 and 30 are often confused. When carefully enunciated, they differ in which syllable is stressed: 13 i// vs. 30 //. However, in dates such as 1300 ("thirteen hundred") or when contrasting numbers in the teens, such as 13, 14, 15, the stress shifts to the first syllable: 13 //.
Strikingly similar folkloric aspects of the number 13 have been noted in various cultures around the world: one theory is that this is due to the cultures employing lunar-solar calendars (there are approximately 12.41 lunations per solar year, and hence 12 "true months" plus a smaller, and often portentous, thirteenth month). This can be witnessed, for example, in the "Twelve Days of Christmas" of Western European tradition.
The number 13 is the sixth prime number, and the smallest emirp (prime which is a different prime when reversed). It is also a Fibonacci number, a happy number, and one of only 3 known Wilson primes.
Since 52 + 122 = 132, (5, 12, 13) forms a Pythagorean triple.
There are 13 Archimedean solids, and a standard torus can be sliced into 13 pieces with just 3 plane cuts. There are also 13 different ways for the three fastest horses in a horse race to finish, allowing for ties, a fact that can be expressed mathematically by 13 being the third ordered Bell number.
In Germany, according to an old rule, 13 as the first compound number was the first number to be written in digits; the numbers 0 through 12 were to be spelled out. The Duden (the German standard dictionary) now calls this rule outdated and no longer valid, but many writers still follow it.
For the English language, different systems are used: Sometimes it is recommended to spell out numbers up to and including nine or ten or even ninety-nine or one hundred. Another system spells out all numbers written in one or two words (fifteen thousand, but 15,001).
In Catholic devotional practice, the number thirteen is also associated with Saint Anthony of Padua, since his feast day falls on June 13. A traditional devotion called the Thirteen Tuesdays of St. Anthony  involves praying to the saint every Tuesday over a period of thirteen weeks. Another devotion, St. Anthony's Chaplet, consists of thirteen decades of three beads each.
According to famous Sakhi (Evidence) or story of Guru Nanak Dev Ji, when he was an accountant at a town of Sultanpur Lodhi, he was distributing grocery to people and when he gave groceries to the 13th person he stopped there because in Gurmukhi and Hindi the word 13 is called Terah, which means yours. And Guru Nanak Dev Ji kept on saying, "Yours, yours, yours..." remembering God. People reported to the emperor that Guru Nanak Dev Ji was giving out free food to the people. When treasures were checked, there was more money than before.
Evidently the number 13 had been considered sinister and wicked in ancient Iranian civilization and Zoroastrianism; Since beginning of Nourooz tradition, the 13th day of each new Iranian year is called Sizdah Be-dar and this tradition is still alive among Iranian people both inside modern Iran and abroad. Since Sizdah Be-dar is the 13th day of the year, it is considered a day which evil's power might cause difficulties for people; Therefore people desert the cities and urban areas for one day and camp in the countryside. Even in the current era after 1979 Revolution and despite the wishes of Islamic government this day is officially holiday all over Iran and its traditions are practiced by the majority of people.
The number 13 is considered an unlucky number in some countries. Charles Stewart Parnell had an irrational fear of the number thirteen  The end of the Mayan calendar's 13th Baktun was superstitiously feared as a harbinger of the apocalyptic 2012 phenomenon. Fear of the number 13 has a specifically recognized phobia, Triskaidekaphobia, a word which was coined in 1911. The superstitious sufferers of triskaidekaphobia try to avoid bad luck by keeping away from anything numbered or labelled thirteen. As a result, companies and manufacturers use another way of numbering or labeling to avoid the number, with hotels and tall buildings being conspicuous examples (Thirteenth floor). It's also considered to be unlucky to have thirteen guests at a table. Friday the 13th has been considered the unluckiest day of the month. 
There are a number of theories behind the cause of the association between thirteen and bad luck, but none of them have been accepted as likely.
At Jesus Christ's last supper, there were thirteen people around the table, counting Christ and the twelve apostles. The reason this is believed to be unlucky is because one of those thirteen, Judas Iscariot, was the betrayer of Jesus Christ.
A year which contained 13 full moons instead of 12 posed problems for the monks who were in charge of the calendars. "This was considered a very unfortunate circumstance, especially by the monks who had charge of the calendar of thirteen months for that year, and it upset the regular arrangement of church festivals. For this reason thirteen came to be considered an unlucky number."
However, in a typical century, there will be about 37 years which have 13 full moons compared with 63 years with 12 full moons, and typically every third or fourth year would have 13 full moons.
The moon moves 13 degrees around the earth every day. It Takes 13 days to change from Full Moon to New Moon and 13 days to change back with 1 day Full and 1 day New to equal 28 days of the Lunar Cycle.
In ancient cultures, the number 13 represented femininity, because it corresponded to the number of lunar (menstrual) cycles in a year (13 x 28 = 364 days). The theory is that, as the solar calendar triumphed over the lunar, the number thirteen became anathema.
Several successful sports figures have worn the number 13. Park Ji-Sung, South-Korean footballer and midfielder for Queens Park Rangers wears number 13. Ozzie Guillén, manager of the 2005 World Series Champion Chicago White Sox, has worn the number throughout his baseball career. Alex Rodriguez began wearing it upon joining the New York Yankees (three, the number he had previously worn, is retired by the Bronx Bombers to honor Babe Ruth). Dan Marino, an American football player known for passing the 3rd most yards in NFL history, wore the number 13. Basketball great Wilt Chamberlain wore the number 13 on his jersey throughout his NBA career. Also, FIBA rules require a player to wear the number in international competitions (only numbers from 4 to 15 could be worn, and as there are 12 players, one must wear 13); Chris Mullin, who wore No. 20 in college and No. 17 in the NBA, wore No. 13 for both (1984 and 1992) of his Olympic appearances. Shaquille O'Neal wore No. 13 in 1996; Tim Duncan wore No. 13 in 2004. Steve Nash wore it for most of his basketball career. Yao Ming wore it in the 2008 Olympics in Beijing. Chris Paul wore the number 13 for both the 2008 and 2012 Olympics. Mats Sundin, Pavel Datsyuk, Bill Guerin, and Michael Cammalleri wear 13 in the NHL. One of Iceland's all time best handball players, Sigurður Sveinsson, wore the number 13 when he played for the national team. In association football, both Gerd Müller and Michael Ballack have favoured the number 13, among others.
Some people even have 13 tattooed onto them to represent the lucky number.
American born Horror-Punk singer and musician Joseph Poole (Murderdolls) uses the name Wednesday 13 as his stage name, taking "Wednesday" from the girl Wednesday from the Addams Family and 13 from Friday the 13th.
American country-pop singer-songwriter Taylor Swift was born on December 13. She considers 13 her lucky number due to lucky events happening to her when the number appears (her first album going gold in 13 weeks, being seated at awards shows in the 13th seat, row or section). She also wears the number written on her hand at her concerts so she has it with her everywhere she goes.
The Band Big Star Wrote a song called 13
The Band Teenage Fanclub Named their album Thirteen after Big Star's song. The band were heavily influenced by Big Star.
American alternative rock band, Pixies recorded "Number 13 Baby" for their Doolittle LP. The lyrics to the song include the line: "Standing in her chinos shirt pulled off clean, gotta tattooed tit say number 13"
English alternative rock band Blur's sixth studio album, entitled 13 was released in 1999.
Colgate University also considers 13 to be a lucky number. They were founded in 1819 by 13 men with 13 dollars, 13 prayers and 13 articles. (To this day, members of the Colgate community consider the number 13 a good omen.) In fact, the campus address is 13 Oak Drive in Hamilton, New York, and the male a cappella group is called the Colgate 13.
In the Mayan Tzolk'in calendar, trecenas mark cycles of 13 day periods. The pyramids are also set up in 9 steps divided into 7 days and 6 nights, 13 days total.
In a tarot card deck, XIII is the card of Death, usually picturing the Pale horse with its rider.
The number 13 in the Coperos religion (small culture in Brazil) is like a God number. All coperos must know that this number can save humankind.
The American flag has 13 stripes in honor of the first 13 colonies.
Apollo 13 was a NASA Moon mission famous for being a "successful failure" in that while the crew were unable to land on the Moon as planned due to a technical malfunction, they were returned safely home.
In rugby league:
In Formula One, the number 13 is not used. As such, the numbering goes 11, 12, 14, 15 under the current numbering system.
In rugby union, the jersey number 13 is worn by one of the two starting centres, usually the outside centre but sometimes the inside centre.