108 (number)

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107108109
Cardinalone hundred and eight
Ordinal108th
(one hundred and eighth)
Factorization22· 33
Divisors1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 9, 12, 18, 27, 36, 54, 108
Roman numeralCVIII
Binary11011002
Ternary110003
Quaternary12304
Quinary4135
Senary3006
Octal1548
Duodecimal9012
Hexadecimal6C16
Vigesimal5820
Base 363036
 
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107108109
Cardinalone hundred and eight
Ordinal108th
(one hundred and eighth)
Factorization22· 33
Divisors1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 9, 12, 18, 27, 36, 54, 108
Roman numeralCVIII
Binary11011002
Ternary110003
Quaternary12304
Quinary4135
Senary3006
Octal1548
Duodecimal9012
Hexadecimal6C16
Vigesimal5820
Base 363036

108 (one hundred [and] eight) is the natural number following 107 and preceding 109.

In mathematics[edit]

108 (or nine dozen) is an abundant number and a semiperfect number. It is a tetranacci number.

108 is the hyperfactorial of 3 since it is of the form 1^1 \cdot 2^2 \cdot 3^3.

108 is divisible by the value of its φ function, which is 36. 108 is also divisible by the total number of its divisors (12), hence it is a refactorable number.

In Euclidean space, the interior angles of a regular pentagon measure 108 degrees each.

There are 108 free polyominoes of order 7.

In base 10, it is a Harshad number and a self number.

The equation 2\sin\left(\frac{108^\circ}{2}\right) = \phi results in the golden ratio.

Religion and the arts[edit]

The number 108 is considered sacred by several Eastern religions, such as Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, connected yoga and dharma based practices. In Sikhism all numbers, weekdays, months etc. are equally auspicious or inauspicious. The individual digits comprising 108; 1, 0, and 8 represent one thing, nothing, and everything (infinity), representing the belief of the ultimate reality of the universe as being (paradoxically) simultaneously one, emptiness, and infinite.[dubious ]

Hinduism[edit]

Hindu deities have 108 names, while in Gaudiya Vaishnavism, there are 108 gopis of Vrindavan. Recital of these names, often accompanied by the counting of a 108-beaded mala, is considered sacred and often done during religious ceremonies. The recital is called namajapa. Accordingly, a japa mala usually has beads for 108 repetitions of a mantra.

Srivaishnavism has 108 Divya Kshetras of Lord Vishnu, called as 108 DivyaDesam.

Buddhism[edit]

Likewise, Tibetan Buddhist malas or rosaries (Tib. ཕྲེང་བ Wyl. phreng ba, "Trengwa") are usually 108 beads;[1] sometimes 111 including the guru bead(s), reflecting the words of the Buddha called in Tibetan the Kangyur (Wylie: Bka'-'gyur) in 108 volumes. Zen priests wear juzu (a ring of prayer beads) around their wrists, which consists of 108 beads.[2]

Japa mala, or japa beads, made from tulasi wood, consisting of 108 beads plus the head bead.

The Lankavatara Sutra has a section where the Bodhisattva Mahamati asks Buddha 108 questions[3] and another section where Buddha lists 108 statements of negation in the form of "A statement concerning X is not statement concerning X".[4] In a footnote, D.T. Suzuki explains that the Sanskrit word translated as "statement" is pada which can also mean "foot-step" or "a position." This confusion over the word "pada" explains why some have mistakenly held that the reference to 108 statements in the Lankavatara refer to the 108 steps that many temples have.[5]

In some schools of Buddhism it is believed that there are 108 feelings. According to Bhante Gunaratana[6] this number is reached by multiplying the senses smell, touch, taste, hearing, sight, and consciousness by whether they are painful, pleasant or neutral, and then again by whether these are internally generated or externally occurring, and yet again by past, present and future, finally we get 108 feelings. 6 × 3 × 2 × 3 = 108. In Japan, at the end of the year, a bell is chimed 108 times in Buddhist temples to finish the old year and welcome the new one. Each ring represents one of 108 earthly temptations a person must overcome to achieve nirvana.

Pop culture[edit]

The number 108 is one of many numeric motifs in the American television programme Lost, which includes some references to Buddhism. For example, the sum of "the numbers" (4, 8, 15, 16, 23, and 42) is 108, and "the numbers" must be entered into a computer every 108 minutes. 108 is also the number of days "the Oceanic 6" have spent on the island. And Jacob tells Hurley to rotate the mirror in the lighthouse to a heading of 108°. In the TV show Once Upon a Time, from the same creators of Lost, the The Evil Queen/Regina Mills's house number in Storybrooke is 108. The number is promenient in Anime. The number 108 also appears in Crying Freeman as the sinister society of 108 Dragons, and Devil Hunter Yohko is the 108th generation demon slayer in her family, in Sekirei there are 108 beings called Sekirei which bond with humans, and in Sands of Destruction there are 108 laws of robotics in clock town.

Ancient artifacts[edit]

The pre-historic monument Stonehenge is about 108 feet in diameter. [7][further explanation needed]

Other references[edit]

In the neo-Gnostic teachings of Samael Aun Weor, an individual has 108 chances (lifetimes) to eliminate his egos and transcend the material world before "devolving" and having the egos forcefully removed in the infradimensions.[8]

Martial arts[edit]

Many East Asian martial arts trace their roots back to Buddhism, specifically, to the Buddhist Shaolin Temple. Because of their ties to Buddhism, 108 has become an important symbolic number in a number of martial arts styles.

In literature[edit]

In sports[edit]

108 is the number that the Belgian cyclist Wouter Weylandt wore when he crashed fatally in the Giro d'Italia on May 9, 2011. As a tribute, many supporters held replicas of his race number by the side of the road the next day. The organization of the Giro d'Italia decided not to issue race number 108 in future editions, to commemorate him.

In other fields[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Chapter 5 of 'Generating the Deity' ISBN 1-55939-055-7
  2. ^ a b Hyaku Hachi No Bonno: The Influence of The 108 Defilements and Other Buddhist Concepts on Karate Thought and Practice By Charles C. Goodin. The article has appeared in Issue #7, Winter 1996-97 of Furyu: The Budo Journal.
  3. ^ The Lankavatara Sutra translated by Daisetz Teitaro Suzuki, Chapter Two, Section II,[1]
  4. ^ The Lankavatara Sutra translated by Daisetz Teitaro Suzuki, Chapter Two, Section III,[2]
  5. ^ a b 108 STEPS: The Sino-Indian Connection in the Martial Arts by Joyotpaul Chaudhuri....
  6. ^ Bhante Gunaratana, Four Foundations of Mindfulness in Plain English 2012, Wisdom Publications page 86
  7. ^ http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://stonehenge.zorger.com/stonehenge_images/Stonehenge_Original_birds_eye_view.png&imgrefurl=http://stonehenge.zorger.com/&usg=__rQyBtjRPL3wp8Tmpmn9oUzHX0jo=&h=769&w=746&sz=11&hl=en&start=0&sig2=Gf7yoIkBoLyi0REkbSWkBg&zoom=1&tbnid=FJz73_nILoA5CM:&tbnh=150&tbnw=146&ei=y3xETZ27HZGEhQf9ram3AQ&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dstonehenge%2Babove%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DN%26biw%3D1680%26bih%3D959%26tbs%3Disch:1&um=1&itbs=1&iact=rc&dur=246&oei=y3xETZ27HZGEhQf9ram3AQ&esq=1&page=1&ndsp=35&ved=1t:429,r:7,s:0&tx=47&ty=78
  8. ^ Samael Aun Weor (2005) [1983]. The Pistis Sophia Unveiled. Glorian Publishing. pp. 211–214. ISBN 0-9745916-8-8. 
  9. ^ A Western Journalist on India: The Ferengi's Columns By François Gautier. pg 158. ISBN 81-241-0795-5
  10. ^ Subramaniam Phd., P., (general editors) Dr. Shu Hikosaka, Asst. Prof. Norinaga Shimizu, & Dr. G. John Samuel, (translator) Dr. M. Radhika (1994). Varma Cuttiram வர்ம சுத்திரம்: A Tamil Text on Martial Art from Palm-Leaf Manuscript. Madras: Institute of Asian Studies. pp. 90 & 91. 
  11. ^ Reid Phd., Howard, Michael Croucher (1991). The Way of the Warrior: The Paradox of the Martial Arts. New York: Outlook Press. pp. 58–85. ISBN 0-87951-433-7. 
  12. ^ Official Major League Baseball by Rawlings
  13. ^ Red Hat Announces First Red Hat Developer Day In India @ ENTERPRISE OPEN SOURCE MAGAZINE

9. '108' in the anime series 'Tokko' is the number of pieces in the Box of Dirge Chinese puzzle box created by alchemy as a doorway between the world of demons and this one. The puzzle box was used in all of the Hellraiser films but there was no reference to its number of shards.

References[edit]

External links[edit]