100 metres

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Athletics
100 metres
Osaka07 D2A Torri Edwards.jpg
Female athletes in a 100 metres heat at the 2007 World Championships.
Men's records
WorldJamaica Usain Bolt 9.58 (2009)
OlympicJamaica Usain Bolt 9.63 (2012)
Women's records
WorldUnited States Florence Griffith 10.49 (1988)
OlympicUnited States Florence Griffith 10.62 (1988)
 
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This article is about the 100-metre race. For lengths on the order of magnitude of 100 metres, see 1 hectometre.
Athletics
100 metres
Osaka07 D2A Torri Edwards.jpg
Female athletes in a 100 metres heat at the 2007 World Championships.
Men's records
WorldJamaica Usain Bolt 9.58 (2009)
OlympicJamaica Usain Bolt 9.63 (2012)
Women's records
WorldUnited States Florence Griffith 10.49 (1988)
OlympicUnited States Florence Griffith 10.62 (1988)

The 100 metres, or 100-metre dash, is a sprint race in track and field competitions. The shortest common outdoor running distance, it is one of the most popular and prestigious events in the sport of athletics. It has been contested at the Summer Olympics since 1896 for men and since 1928 for women.

The reigning 100 m Olympic champion is often named "the fastest man/woman in the world". Jamaicans Usain Bolt and Shelly-Ann Fraser-Pryce are the reigning world and Olympic champions in the men's and women's 100 metres, respectively.

On an outdoor 400 metres running track, the 100 m is run on the home straight, with the start usually being set on an extension to make it a straight-line race. Runners begin in the starting blocks and the race begins when an official fires the starter's pistol. Sprinters typically reach top speed after somewhere between 50–60 m. Their speed then slows towards the finish line.

The 10-second barrier has historically been a barometer of fast men's performances, while the best female sprinters take eleven seconds or less to complete the race. The current men's world record is 9.58 seconds, set by Jamaica's Usain Bolt, while the women's world record of 10.49 seconds set by American Florence Griffith-Joyner in 1988 remains unbroken.

The 100 m (109.361 yards) emerged from the metrication of the 100 yards (91.4 m), a now defunct distance originally contested in English-speaking countries. The event is largely held outdoors as few indoor facilities have a 100 m straight.

Race dynamics[edit]

Start[edit]

Male sprinters await the starter's instructions

At the start, some athletes play psychological games such as trying to be last to the starting blocks.[1][2][3]

The time between the gun and first kick against the starting block is measured electronically, via sensors built in the gun and the blocks. A reaction time less than 0.1 s is considered a false start. The 0.1-second interval accounts for the sum of the time it takes for the sound of the starter's pistol to reach the runners' ears, and the time it takes to react to it.

For many years a sprinter was disqualified if responsible for two false starts individually. However, this rule allowed some major races to be restarted so many times that the sprinters started to lose focus. The next iteration of the rule, introduced in February 2003, meant that one false start was allowed among the field, but anyone responsible for a subsequent false start was disqualified.

This rule led to some sprinters deliberately false-starting to gain a psychological advantage: an individual with a slower reaction time might false-start, forcing the faster starters to wait and be sure of hearing the gun for the subsequent start, thereby losing some of their advantage. To avoid such abuse and to improve spectator enjoyment, the IAAF implemented a further change in the 2010 season – a false starting athlete now receives immediate disqualification.[4] This proposal was met with objections when first raised in 2005, on the grounds that it would not leave any room for innocent mistakes. Justin Gatlin commented, "Just a flinch or a leg cramp could cost you a year's worth of work."[5] The rule had a dramatic impact at the 2011 world championships, when current world record holder Usain Bolt was disqualified.[6][7]

Mid-race[edit]

Runners typically reach their top speed just past the halfway point of the race and they progressively decelerate in the later stages of the race. Maintaining that top speed for as long as possible is a primary focus of training for the 100 m.[8] Pacing and running tactics do not play a significant role in the 100 m, as success in the event depends more on pure athletic qualities and technique.

Finish[edit]

The winner, by IAAF Competition Rules, is determined by the first athlete with his or her torso (not including limbs, head, or neck) over the nearer edge of the finish line.[9] When the placing of the athletes is not obvious, a photo finish is used to distinguish which runner was first to cross the line.

Climatic conditions[edit]

See also: wind assistance

Climatic conditions, in particular air resistance, can affect performances in the 100 m. A strong head wind is very detrimental to performance, while a tail wind can improve performances significantly. For this reason, a maximum tail wind of 2.0 m/s is allowed for a 100 m performance to be considered eligible for records, or "wind legal".

Furthermore, sprint athletes perform better at high altitudes because of the thinner air, which provides less air resistance. In theory, the thinner air would also make breathing slightly more difficult (due to the partial pressure of oxygen being lower), but this difference is negligible for sprint distances where all the oxygen needed for the short dash is already in the muscles and bloodstream when the race starts (explaining why many athletes choose not to breathe for the duration of the race)[citation needed]. While there are no limitations on altitude, performances made at altitudes greater than 1000 m above sea level are marked with an "A".[10]

10-second barrier[edit]

Main article: 10-second barrier

Gender and ethnicity[edit]

Main article: race and sports
In 2010, Christophe Lemaitre became the first white sprinter to run 100m in under 10 seconds officially.

Only male sprinters have beaten the 100 m 10-second barrier, nearly all of them being of West African descent. Namibian (formerly South-West Africa) Frankie Fredericks became the first man of non-West African heritage to achieve the feat in 1991 and in 2003 Australia's Patrick Johnson (who has Irish and Indigenous Australian heritage) became the first sub-10-second runner without an African background.[11][12][13][14]

In 2010, Frenchman Christophe Lemaitre became the first white European under ten seconds (although Poland's Marian Woronin had unofficially surpassed the barrier with a time of 9.992 seconds in 1984).[15] In 2011, Zimbabwean Ngonidzashe Makusha became the 76th man to break the barrier, yet only the fourth man not of West African descent.[16] No sprinter from Asia or East and North Africa has officially achieved this feat,[17][18] though Koji Ito of Japan[19] and Zhang Peimeng of China[20] have both recorded times of exactly ten seconds.

It is believed that biological factors may be largely responsible for the notable success in sprinting events enjoyed by athletes of West African descent. Chief among these is a preponderance of natural fast twitch muscle fibers, which aid to obtain higher power, thus higher acceleration and speed. Scientists have concluded that elite-level sprinting is virtually impossible in the absence of the ACTN3 protein, a "speed gene" most common among persons of West African descent that renders fast twitch muscle fibers fast. African American 200 m and 400 m world champion Michael Johnson has suggested that the presence of ACTN3 is at the root of the success of these athletes in sprinting events.[17][21] Top sprinters of differing ancestry, such as Christophe Lemaitre, are believed to be exceptions in that they too likely have the genes favourable for sprinting.[21]

Colin Jackson, an athlete with mixed ethnic background and former world record holder in the 110 metre hurdles,[22] noted that both his parents were talented athletes and suggested that biological inheritance was the greatest influence, rather than any perceived racial factor. Furthermore, successful black role models in track events may reinforce the racial disparity.[18]

Record performances[edit]

Major 100 m races, such as at the Olympic Games, attract much attention, particularly when the world record is thought to be within reach.

The men's world record has been improved upon twelve times since electronic timing became mandatory in 1977.[23] The current men's world record of 9.58 s is held by Usain Bolt of Jamaica, set at the 2009 World Athletics Championships final on 16 August 2009, breaking his own previous world record by 0.11 s.[24] The current women's world record of 10.49 s was set by Florence Griffith-Joyner of the USA, in Indianapolis, Indiana, on 16 July 1988.[25]

Some records have been marred by prohibited drug use – in particular, the scandal at the 1988 Summer Olympics when the winner, Canadian Ben Johnson was stripped of his medal and world record.

Jim Hines, Ronnie Ray Smith and Charles Green were the first to break the 10-second barrier in the 100 m, all on 20 June 1968, the Night of Speed. Hines also recorded the first legal electronically timed sub-10 second 100 m in winning the 100 metres at the 1968 Olympics. Bob Hayes ran a wind-assisted 9.91 seconds at the 1964 Olympics.

Continental records[edit]

Updated 10 February 2014.[26]

AreaMenWomen
Time (s)WindAthleteNationTime (s)WindAthleteNation
Africa (records)9.85+1.7Olusoji Fasuba Nigeria10.79+1.1Blessing Okagbare Nigeria
Asia (records)9.99+0.9Samuel Francis Qatar10.790.0Li Xuemei People's Republic of China
Europe (records)9.86+0.6Francis Obikwelu Portugal10.73+2.0Christine Arron France
North, Central America
and Caribbean
(records)
9.58 WR+0.9Usain Bolt Jamaica10.49 WR0.0Florence Griffith-Joyner United States
Oceania (records)9.93+1.8Patrick Johnson Australia11.11+1.9Melissa Breen Australia
South America (records)10.00[A]+1.6Robson da Silva Brazil11.05+1.7Ana Cláudia Lemos Brazil

Notes[edit]

Fastest 100 metres runners[edit]

All-time top 25 men[edit]

Usain Bolt breaking the world and Olympic records at the 2008 Beijing Olympics

As of June 2014[28]

RankTimeWind (m/s)AthleteCountryDateLocation
19.58 WR+0.9Usain Bolt Jamaica16 August 2009Berlin
29.69+2.0Tyson Gay United States20 September 2009Shanghai
−0.1Yohan Blake Jamaica23 August 2012Lausanne
49.72+0.2Asafa Powell Jamaica2 September 2008Lausanne
59.78+0.9Nesta Carter Jamaica29 August 2010Rieti
69.79+0.1Maurice Greene United States16 June 1999Athens
+1.5Justin Gatlin United States5 August 2012London
89.80+1.3Steve Mullings Jamaica4 June 2011Eugene
99.82+1.7Richard Thompson Trinidad and Tobago21 June 2014Port of Spain
109.84+0.7Donovan Bailey Canada27 July 1996Atlanta
+0.2Bruny Surin Canada22 August 1999Seville
129.85+1.2Leroy Burrell United States6 July 1994Lausanne
+1.7Olusoji Fasuba Nigeria12 May 2006Ad-Dawhah
+1.3Mike Rodgers United States4 June 2011Eugene
159.86+1.2Carl Lewis United States25 August 1991Tokyo
−0.7Frankie Fredericks Namibia3 July 1996Lausanne
+1.8Ato Boldon Trinidad and Tobago19 April 1998Walnut
+0.6Francis Obikwelu Portugal22 August 2004Athens
+1.4Keston Bledman Trinidad and Tobago23 June 2012Port of Spain
209.87+0.3Linford Christie United Kingdom15 August 1993Stuttgart
−0.2Obadele Thompson [A] Barbados11 September 1998Johannesburg
229.88+1.8Shawn Crawford United States19 June 2004Eugene
+1.0Walter Dix United States8 August 2010Nottwil
+0.9Ryan Bailey United States29 August 2010Rieti
+1.0Michael Frater Jamaica30 June 2011Lausanne

More facts about these male runners[edit]

  • Usain Bolt also holds the record for the fastest 100 metres with a running start at 8.70 (41 km/hr). This was achieved at a 150 metres race in Manchester 2009, completed in 14.35 (also a World Record). The second fastest all-time record is that of Asafa Powell, with a run of 8.75 on the 4 x 100 metres anchor leg at the Beijing Olympics.[citation needed]
  • Tyson Gay also has a time of 9.68 s set on 29 June 2008 during the 2008 U.S. Olympic Track & Field Trials at Hayward Field in Eugene, Oregon; the tail wind speed was +4.1 m/s, more than double the IAAF legal limit of +2.0 m/s.[29]
  • Obadele Thompson ran a wind-aided 9.69 in El Paso, Texas in April 1996 which stood as the fastest ever 100m time for 12 years until Tyson Gay's June 2008 performance; the tail wind speed was +5.7 m/s.
  • Justin Gatlin ran 9.77 in Doha on 12 May 2006, which was at the time ratified as a world record. However, the record was rescinded in 2007 after he failed a doping test in April 2006.
  • Carl Lewis ran a time of 9.78 seconds at the 1988 US Olympic trials in Indianapolis, but it was wind aided (the tail wind speed was +5.2 m/s).
  • Tim Montgomery's time of 9.78 at Paris on 14 September 2002 was rescinded following his indictment in the BALCO scandal on drug use and drug trafficking charges. The time had stood as the world record until Asafa Powell first ran 9.77.
  • Ben Johnson ran 9.79 at Seoul on 24 September 1988, but he was disqualified after he tested positive for stanozolol after the race. He subsequently admitted to drug use between 1981 and 1988, and his time of 9.83 at Rome on 30 August 1987 was rescinded. Carl Lewis's 9.92 in the Seoul race was therefore recognized as the world record, and his two prior runs of 9.93 were seen as having equalled the previous world record.
  • Ato Boldon ran a total of four 9.86 clockings, (two in 1998, two in 1999).
  • Steve Mullings serving a lifetime ban for doping.

All-time top 25 women[edit]

Christine Arron (left) wins the 100 m at the Weltklasse meeting.

As of July 2013

RankTimeWind (m/s)AthleteNationDateLocation
110.490.0Florence Griffith-Joyner United States16 July 1988Indianapolis
210.64+1.2Carmelita Jeter United States20 September 2009Shanghai
310.65 [A]+1.1Marion Jones United States12 September 1998Johannesburg
410.70+0.6Shelly-Ann Fraser-Pryce Jamaica29 June 2012Kingston
510.73+2.0Christine Arron France19 August 1998Budapest
610.74+1.3Merlene Ottey Jamaica7 September 1996Milan
710.75+0.4Kerron Stewart Jamaica10 July 2009Rome
810.76+1.7Evelyn Ashford United States22 August 1984Zürich
+1.1Veronica Campbell-Brown Jamaica31 May 2011Ostrava
1010.77+0.9Irina Privalova Russia6 July 1994Lausanne
+0.7Ivet Lalova Bulgaria19 June 2004Plovdiv
1210.78 [A]+1.0Dawn Sowell United States3 June 1989Provo
10.78+1.8Torri Edwards United States26 June 2008Eugene
1410.790.0Li Xuemei People's Republic of China18 October 1997Shanghai
−0.1Inger Miller United States22 August 1999Seville
+1.1Blessing Okagbare Nigeria27 July 2013London
1710.80+0.8Tori Bowie United States18 July 2014Monaco
1810.81+1.7Marlies Gohr East Germany8 June 1983Berlin
1910.82−1.0Gail Devers United States1 August 1992Barcelona
+0.4Gwen Torrence United States3 September 1994Paris
−0.3Zhanna Block Ukraine6 August 2001Edmonton
−0.7Sherone Simpson Jamaica24 June 2006Kingston
2310.83+1.7Marita Koch East Germany8 June 1983Berlin
0.0Sheila Echols United States16 July 1988Indianapolis
−0.7Juliet Cuthbert Jamaica1 August 1992Barcelona
+0.1Ekaterina Thanou Greece22 August 1999Seville
+1.6Kelly-Ann Baptiste Trinidad and Tobago22 June 2013Port of Spain

More facts about these female runners[edit]

  • Florence Griffith-Joyner's World Record has been the subject of a controversy due to strong suspicion of a defective anemometer measuring a tailwind lower than actually present;[30] since 1997 the International Athletics Annual of the Association of Track and Field Statisticians has listed this performance as "probably strongly wind assisted, but recognized as a world record".[31] It can be reasonable to assume a wind reading of about +4.7 m/s for Griffith-Joyner's quarter-final. Her 10.61 the following day and 10.62 at the 1988 Olympics would still make her the world record holder.[32] Sheila Echols' 10.83 clocking was set in the same quarter-final race at the US Olympic trials as Griffith-Joyner's world record, her next best time is 10.99, from the semi-finals of the same meet.
  • Gail Devers also has two other 10.82 performances, 7 July 1993 in Lausanne (+1.5) and 16 August 1993 in the World Championship final in Stuttgart (−0.3).

Best Year Performances[edit]

Men[edit]

YearTimeAthletePlace
19779.98A Silvio Leonard (CUB)Guadalajara
197810.07(A) Clancy Edwards (USA)
 Eddie Hart (USA)
 Steve Williams (USA)
Eugene
Colorado Springs(A)
Zurich
197910.01A Pietro Mennea (ITA)Ciudad de Mexico
198010.02 James Sanford (USA)Westwood
198110.00 Carl Lewis (USA)Dallas
198210.00 Carl Lewis (USA)Modesto
19839.93A Calvin Smith (USA)Colorado Springs
19849.96 Mel Lattany (USA)Athens
19859.98 Carl Lewis (USA)Modesto
198610.00 Chidi Imoh (NGR)Berlin
19879.93 Carl Lewis (USA)Rome
19889.92 Carl Lewis (USA)Seoul
19899.94 Leroy Burrell (USA)Houston
19909.96 Leroy Burrell (USA)Villeneuve d'Ascq; Sestriere(A)
19919.86 Carl Lewis (USA)Tokyo
19929.93 Michael Marsh (USA)Walnut
19939.87 Linford Christie (GBR)Stuttgart
19949.85 Leroy Burrell (USA)Lausanne
19959.91 Donovan Bailey (CAN)Montreal
19969.84 Donovan Bailey (CAN)Atlanta
19979.86 Maurice Greene (USA)Athens
19989.86 Ato Boldon (TRI)Walnut; Athens
19999.79 Maurice Greene (USA)Athens
20009.86 Maurice Greene (USA)Berlin
20019.82 Maurice Greene (USA)Edmonton
20029.89 Maurice Greene (USA)Roma
20039.93 Patrick Johnson (AUS)Mito
20049.85 Justin Gatlin (USA)Athens
20059.77 Asafa Powell (JAM)Athens
20069.77 Asafa Powell (JAM)Gateshead; Zurich
20079.74 Asafa Powell (JAM)Rieti
20089.69 Usain Bolt (JAM)Beijing
20099.58 Usain Bolt (JAM)Berlin
20109.78 Tyson Gay (USA)
 Nesta Carter (JAM)
London
Rieti
20119.76 Usain Bolt (JAM)Bruxelles
20129.63 Usain Bolt (JAM)London
20139.77 Usain Bolt (JAM)Moscow

Women[edit]

YearTimeAthletePlace
197710.88 Marlies Göhr (GDR)Dresden
197810.94 Marlies Göhr (GDR)Dresden
197910.97 Marlies Göhr (GDR)
 Evelyn Ashford (USA)
Dresden
Walnut
198010.93 Marlies Göhr (GDR)Dresden
198110.90A Evelyn Ashford (USA)Colorado Springs
198210.88 Marlies Göhr (GDR)Karl-Marx-Stadt
198310.79A Evelyn Ashford (USA)Colorado Springs
198410.76 Evelyn Ashford (USA)Zurich
198510.86 Marlies Göhr (GDR)Berlin
198610.88 Evelyn Ashford (USA)Rieti
198710.86 Anelia Nuneva (BUL)
 Silke Möller (GER)
Beograd
Potsdam
198810.49 Florence Griffith-Joyner (USA)Indianapolis
198910.78A Dawn Sowell (USA)Provo
199010.78 Merlene Ottey (JAM)Sevilla
199110.79 Merlene Ottey (JAM)Vigo
199210.80 Merlene Ottey (JAM)Salamanca
199310.82 Gail Devers (USA)
 Merlene Ottey (JAM)
Lausanne;Stuttgart
Stuttgart
199410.77 Irina Privalova (RUS)Lausanne
199510.84 Gwen Torrence (USA)Goteborg
199610.74 Merlene Ottey (JAM)Milano
199710.76 Marion Jones (USA)Bruxelles
199810.65A Marion Jones (USA)Johannesburg
199910.70 Marion Jones (USA)Sevilla
200010.78 Marion Jones (USA)Sevilla
200110.82 Zhanna Block (UKR)Edmonton
200210.86 Zhanna Block (USA)Heusden-Zolder
200310.86 Chryste Gaines (USA)Monaco
200410.77 Ivet Lalova (BUL)Plovdiv
200510.84 Chandra Sturrup (BAH)Lausanne
200610.82 Sherone Simpson (JAM)Kingston
200710.89 Veronica Campbell-Brown (JAM)Kingston
200810.78 Shelly-Ann Fraser (JAM)
 Torri Edwards (USA)
Beijing
Eugene
200910.64 Carmelita Jeter (USA)Shanghai
201010.78 Veronica Campbell-Brown (JAM)Eugene
201110.70 Carmelita Jeter (USA)Eugene
201210.70 Shelly-Ann Fraser-Pryce (JAM)Kingston
201310.71 Shelly-Ann Fraser-Pryce (JAM)Moscow

Junior (under-20) men[edit]

Updated 15 June 2014[33]

RankFastest time (s)Wind (m/s)AthleteCountryDateLocation
19.97+1.8Trayvon Bromell United States13 June 2014Eugene
210.01+0.0Darrel Brown Trinidad and Tobago24 August 2003Paris
+1.6Jeff Demps United States28 June 2008Eugene
+0.9Yoshihide Kiryu Japan29 April 2013Hiroshima
510.03+0.7Marcus Rowland United States31 July 2009Port of Spain
610.04+1.7D'Angelo Cherry United States10 June 2009Fayetteville
+0.2Christophe Lemaitre France24 July 2009Novi Sad
810.05+0.1Adam Gemili Great Britain11 July 2012Barcelona
910.06+2.0Dwain Chambers Great Britain25 July 1997Ljubljana
+1.5Walter Dix United States27 May 2005New York City
1110.07+2.0Stanley Floyd United States24 May 1980Austin
+1.1DaBryan Blanton United States30 May 2003Lincoln
+0.2Tamunosiki Atorudibo Nigeria8 July 2004Abuja
+0.3Jimmy Vicaut France22 July 2011Tallinn

Notes[edit]

  • British sprinter Mark Lewis-Francis recorded a time of 9.97 seconds on 4 August 2001 (aged 18 years, 334 days) but the wind gauge malfunctioned, invalidating the run.
  • Nigerian sprinters Davidson Ezinwa and Sunday Emmanuel ran 10.05 (4 January 1990) and 10.06 (26 April 1997), respectively, but without wind gauge.
  • Trayvon Bromell recorded a time of 9.77 s with a strong tailwind of +4.2 m/s on May 2014 during the Big 12 Outdoor Track Championships[34]

Women[edit]

Junior (under-20) women[edit]

Updated 5 May 2012

RankFastest time (s)Wind (m/s)AthleteNationDateLocation
110.88+2.0Marlies Göhr East Germany1 July 1977Dresden
210.89+1.8Katrin Krabbe East Germany20 July 1988Berlin
311.03+1.7Silke Gladisch-Möller East Germany8 June 1983Berlin
+0.6English Gardner United States14 May 2011Tucson
511.04+1.4Angela Williams United States5 June 1999Boise
611.07+0.7Bianca Knight United States27 June 2008Eugene
711.08+2.0Brenda Morehead United States21 June 1976Eugene
811.11+0.2Shakedia Jones United States2 May 1998Westwood
+1.1Joan Uduak Ekah Nigeria2 July 1999Lausanne
1011.12+2.0Veronica Campbell-Brown Jamaica18 October 2000Santiago
+1.2Alexandria Anderson United States22 June 2006Indianapolis
+1.1Aurieyall Scott United States24 June 2011Eugene

Youth (under-18) boys[edit]

Updated 11 December 2012

RankFastest time (s)Wind (m/s)AthleteCountryDateLocation
110.19+0.5Yoshihide Kiryu Japan3 November 2012Fukuroi
210.23+0.8Tamunosiki Atorudibo Nigeria23 March 2002Enugu
+1.2Rynell Parson United States21 June 2007Indianapolis
410.24+0.0Darrel Brown Trinidad and Tobago14 April 2001Bridgetown
510.25+1.5J-Mee Samuels United States11 July 2004Knoxville
+1.6Jeff Demps United States1 August 2007Knoxville
710.26+1.2Deworski Odom United States21 July 1994Lisboa
−0.1Sunday Emmanuel Nigeria18 March 1995Bauchi
910.27+0.2Henry Thomas United States19 May 1984Norwalk
+1.6Curtis Johnson United States30 June 1990Fresno
+1.0Ivory Williams United States8 June 2002Sacramento
−0.2Jazeel Murphy Jamaica23 April 2011Montego Bay

Youth (under-18) girls[edit]

Updated 5 May 2012

RankFastest time (s)Wind (m/s)AthleteNationDateLocation
111.13+2.0Chandra Cheeseborough United States21 June 1976Eugene
211.14+1.7Marion Jones United States6 June 1992Norwalk
−0.5Angela Williams United States | 21 June 1997Edwardsville
411.16+1.2Gabrielle Mayo United States22 June 2006Indianapolis
511.17 A+0.6Wendy Vereen United States3 July 1983Colorado Springs
611.20 A+1.2Raelene Boyle Australia15 June 1968Mexico City
711.24+1.2Jeneba Tarmoh United States22 June 2006Indianapolis
+0.8Jodie Williams Great Britain31 May 2010Bedford
911.26+1.4Grit Breuer East Germany30 June 1989Dresden
+1.2Bianca Knight United States22 June 2006Indianapolis

Paralympic men[edit]

Jason Smyth (in lane five) breaking the men's T13 world record at the 2012 Paralympic Games in London.

Updated to 14 November 2013[35]

ClassificationFastest time (s)Wind (m/s)AthleteCountryDateLocation
T1111.03+0.4Lucas Prado Brazil9 September 2008Beijing
T1210.66−0.4Elchin Muradov Azerbaijan19 June 2010Imola
T1310.46+0.6Jason Smyth Ireland1 September 2012London
T3223.25+0.0Martin McDonagh Ireland13 August 1999Nottingham
T3317.41+1.7Ahmad Almutairi Kuwait16 March 2013Sharjah
T3415.69+0.1Walid Ktila Tunisia17 January 2012Kuwait City
T3512.29−0.3Yang Sen People's Republic of China13 September 2008Beijing
T3611.90-0.5Evgenii Shvetcov Russia22 July 2013Lyon
T3711.48-0.7Andrey Vdovin Russia22 July 2013Lyon
T3810.79+0.4Evan O'Hanlon Australia1 September 2012London
T4212.11+1.2Heinrich Popow Germany12 July 2013Leverkusen
T4310.57+1.9Alan Fonteles Cardoso Oliveira Brazil28 July 2013London
T4410.75+1.9Richard Browne United States28 July 2013London
T4510.94+0.2Yohansson Nascimento Brazil6 September 2012London
T4610.72+0.0Ajibola Adeoye Nigeria6 September 1992Barcelona
T5121.11+1.2Toni Piispanen Finland17 May 2012Pratteln
T5216.73+0.4Paul Nitz United States20 May 2012Nottwil
T5314.34+0.7Brent Lakatos Canada28 July 2013London
T5413.63+1.0Leo-Pekka Tähti Finland1 September 2012London

Paralympic women[edit]

Updated to 14 November 2013[36]

ClassificationFastest time (s)Wind (m/s)AthleteCountryDateLocation
T1112.01+1.2Terezinha Guilhermina Brazil5 September 2012London
T1211.91+0.6Zhou Guohua People's Republic of China1 September 2012London
T1311.99−0.9Omara Durand Cuba17 November 2011Guadalajara
T3237.67+0.0Lindsay Wright United Kingdom25 July 1997Nottingham
T3321.59−0.4Kristen Messer United States31 August 2012London
T3417.54-0.5Hannah Cockroft United Kingdom25 May 2013Pratteln
T3515.63−0.3Oxana Corso Italy22 July 2013Lyon
T3613.82+0.3Wang Fang People's Republic of China16 September 2008Beijing
T3713.68+0.4Mandy Francois-Elie France8 June 2013Saint-Cyr-sur-Loire
T3813.10-0.6Sophie Hahn United Kingdom24 July 2013Lyon
T4215.18−0.5Martina Caironi Italy6 June 2013Rome
T4312.96+0.8Marlou van Rhijn Netherlands15 June 2013London
T4412.98+0.0April Holmes Netherlands1 July 2006Atlanta
T4514.00+0.0G Cole Canada2 June 1980Arnhem
T4611.95−0.2Yunidis Castillo Cuba4 September 2012London
T5132.08+0.0V Hill United States27 August 1989Stoke Mandeville
T5218.67+1.7Michelle Stilwell Canada14 July 2012Windsor
T5316.22−0.2Huang Lisha People's Republic of China12 September 2008Beijing
T5415.82+0.5Wenjun Liu People's Republic of China8 September 2012London

Olympic medalists[edit]

Further information: 100 metres at the Olympics

Men[edit]

GamesGoldSilverBronze
1896 Athens
details
 Thomas Burke (USA) Fritz Hofmann (GER) Francis Lane (USA)
 Alajos Szokolyi (HUN)
1900 Paris
details
 Frank Jarvis (USA) Walter Tewksbury (USA) Stan Rowley (AUS)
1904 St. Louis
details
 Archie Hahn (USA) Nate Cartmell (USA) William Hogenson (USA)
1908 London
details
 Reggie Walker (RSA) James Rector (USA) Robert Kerr (CAN)
1912 Stockholm
details
 Ralph Craig (USA) Alvah Meyer (USA) Donald Lippincott (USA)
1920 Antwerp
details
 Charlie Paddock (USA) Morris Kirksey (USA) Harry Edward (GBR)
1924 Paris
details
 Harold Abrahams (GBR) Jackson Scholz (USA) Arthur Porritt (NZL)
1928 Amsterdam
details
 Percy Williams (CAN) Jack London (GBR) Georg Lammers (GER)
1932 Los Angeles
details
 Eddie Tolan (USA) Ralph Metcalfe (USA) Arthur Jonath (GER)
1936 Berlin
details
 Jesse Owens (USA) Ralph Metcalfe (USA) Tinus Osendarp (NED)
1948 London
details
 Harrison Dillard (USA) Barney Ewell (USA) Lloyd LaBeach (PAN)
1952 Helsinki
details
 Lindy Remigino (USA) Herb McKenley (JAM) McDonald Bailey (GBR)
1956 Melbourne
details
 Bobby Morrow (USA) Thane Baker (USA) Hector Hogan (AUS)
1960 Rome
details
 Armin Hary (EUA) Dave Sime (USA) Peter Radford (GBR)
1964 Tokyo
details
 Bob Hayes (USA) Enrique Figuerola (CUB) Harry Jerome (CAN)
1968 Mexico City
details
 Jim Hines (USA) Lennox Miller (JAM) Charles Greene (USA)
1972 Munich
details
 Valeriy Borzov (URS) Robert Taylor (USA) Lennox Miller (JAM)
1976 Montreal
details
 Hasely Crawford (TRI) Don Quarrie (JAM) Valeriy Borzov (URS)
1980 Moscow
details
 Allan Wells (GBR) Silvio Leonard (CUB) Petar Petrov (BUL)
1984 Los Angeles
details
 Carl Lewis (USA) Sam Graddy (USA) Ben Johnson (CAN)
1988 Seoul[37][38]
details
 Carl Lewis (USA) Linford Christie (GBR) Calvin Smith (USA)
1992 Barcelona
details
 Linford Christie (GBR) Frankie Fredericks (NAM) Dennis Mitchell (USA)
1996 Atlanta
details
 Donovan Bailey (CAN) Frankie Fredericks (NAM) Ato Boldon (TRI)
2000 Sydney
details
 Maurice Greene (USA) Ato Boldon (TRI) Obadele Thompson (BAR)
2004 Athens
details
 Justin Gatlin (USA) Francis Obikwelu (POR) Maurice Greene (USA)
2008 Beijing
details
 Usain Bolt (JAM) Richard Thompson (TRI) Walter Dix (USA)
2012 London
details
 Usain Bolt (JAM) Yohan Blake (JAM) Justin Gatlin (USA)

Women[edit]

GamesGoldSilverBronze
1928 Amsterdam
details
 Betty Robinson (USA) Fanny Rosenfeld (CAN) Ethel Smith (CAN)
1932 Los Angeles
details
 Stanisława Walasiewicz (POL) Hilda Strike (CAN) Wilhelmina von Bremen (USA)
1936 Berlin
details
 Helen Stephens (USA) Stanisława Walasiewicz (POL) Käthe Krauß (GER)
1948 London
details
 Fanny Blankers-Koen (NED) Dorothy Manley (GBR) Shirley Strickland (AUS)
1952 Helsinki
details
 Marjorie Jackson (AUS) Daphne Hasenjager (RSA) Shirley Strickland de la Hunty (AUS)
1956 Melbourne
details
 Betty Cuthbert (AUS) Christa Stubnick (EUA) Marlene Matthews (AUS)
1960 Rome
details
 Wilma Rudolph (USA) Dorothy Hyman (GBR) Giuseppina Leone (ITA)
1964 Tokyo
details
 Wyomia Tyus (USA) Edith McGuire (USA) Ewa Kłobukowska (POL)
1968 Mexico City
details
 Wyomia Tyus (USA) Barbara Ferrell (USA) Irena Szewińska (POL)
1972 Munich
details
 Renate Stecher (GDR) Raelene Boyle (AUS) Silvia Chibás (CUB)
1976 Montreal
details
 Annegret Richter (FRG) Renate Stecher (GDR) Inge Helten (FRG)
1980 Moscow
details
 Lyudmila Kondratyeva (URS) Marlies Göhr (GDR) Ingrid Auerswald (GDR)
1984 Los Angeles
details
 Evelyn Ashford (USA) Alice Brown (USA) Merlene Ottey (JAM)
1988 Seoul
details
 Florence Griffith-Joyner (USA) Evelyn Ashford (USA) Heike Drechsler (GDR)
1992 Barcelona
details
 Gail Devers (USA) Juliet Cuthbert (JAM) Irina Privalova (EUN)
1996 Atlanta
details
 Gail Devers (USA) Merlene Ottey (JAM) Gwen Torrence (USA)
2000 Sydney
details
Vacant[39] Ekaterini Thanou (GRE) Merlene Ottey (JAM)
 Tayna Lawrence (JAM)
2004 Athens
details
 Yulia Nestsiarenka (BLR) Lauryn Williams (USA) Veronica Campbell (JAM)
2008 Beijing
details
 Shelly-Ann Fraser (JAM) Sherone Simpson (JAM)none awarded
 Kerron Stewart (JAM)
2012 London
details
 Shelly-Ann Fraser-Pryce (JAM) Carmelita Jeter (USA) Veronica Campbell-Brown (JAM)

World Championship medalists[edit]

Men[edit]

ChampionshipsGoldSilverBronze
1983 Helsinki Carl Lewis (USA)10.07 Calvin Smith (USA)10.21 Emmit King (USA)10.24
1987 Rome Carl Lewis (USA)9.93 Raymond Stewart (JAM)10.08 Linford Christie (GBR)10.14
1991 Tokyo Carl Lewis (USA)9.86 Leroy Burrell (USA)9.88 Dennis Mitchell (USA)9.91
1993 Stuttgart Linford Christie (GBR)9.87 Andre Cason (USA)9.92 Dennis Mitchell (USA)9.99
1995 Gothenburg Donovan Bailey (CAN)9.97 Bruny Surin (CAN)10.03 Ato Boldon (TRI)10.03
1997 Athens Maurice Greene (USA)9.86 Donovan Bailey (CAN)9.91 Tim Montgomery (USA)9.94
1999 Seville Maurice Greene (USA)9.80 Bruny Surin (CAN)9.84 Dwain Chambers (GBR)9.97
2001 Edmonton Maurice Greene (USA)9.82 Bernard Williams (USA)9.94 Ato Boldon (TRI)9.98
2003 Paris Kim Collins (SKN)10.07 Darrel Brown (TRI)10.08 Darren Campbell (GBR)10.08
2005 Helsinki Justin Gatlin (USA)9.88 Michael Frater (JAM)10.05 Kim Collins (SKN)10.05
2007 Osaka Tyson Gay (USA)9.85 Derrick Atkins (BAH)9.91 Asafa Powell (JAM)9.96
2009 Berlin Usain Bolt (JAM)9.58 Tyson Gay (USA)9.71 Asafa Powell (JAM)9.84
2011 Daegu Yohan Blake (JAM)9.92 Walter Dix (USA)10.08 Kim Collins (SKN)10.09
2013 Moscow Usain Bolt (JAM)9.77 Justin Gatlin (USA)9.85 Nesta Carter (JAM)9.95

Women[edit]

ChampionshipsGoldSilverBronze
1983 Helsinki Marlies Oelsner-Göhr (GDR) Marita Koch (GDR) Diane Williams (USA)
1987 Rome Silke Gladisch-Möller (GDR) Heike Daute-Drechsler (GDR) Merlene Ottey (JAM)
1991 Tokyo Katrin Krabbe (GER) Gwen Torrence (USA) Merlene Ottey (JAM)
1993 Stuttgart Gail Devers (USA) Merlene Ottey (JAM) Gwen Torrence (USA)
1995 Gothenburg Gwen Torrence (USA) Merlene Ottey (JAM) Irina Privalova (RUS)
1997 Athens Marion Jones (USA) Zhanna Pintusevich (UKR) Savatheda Fynes (BAH)
1999 Seville Marion Jones (USA) Inger Miller (USA) Ekaterini Thanou (GRE)
2001 Edmonton Zhanna Pintusevich-Block (UKR) Ekaterini Thanou (GRE) Chandra Sturrup (BAH)
2003 Paris Torri Edwards (USA) Zhanna Block (UKR) Chandra Sturrup (BAH)
2005 Helsinki Lauryn Williams (USA) Veronica Campbell (JAM) Christine Arron (FRA)
2007 Osaka Veronica Campbell-Brown (JAM) Lauryn Williams (USA) Carmelita Jeter (USA)
2009 Berlin Shelly-Ann Fraser (JAM) Kerron Stewart (JAM) Carmelita Jeter (USA)
2011 Daegu Carmelita Jeter (USA) Veronica Campbell-Brown (JAM) Kelly-Ann Baptiste (TRI)
2013 Moscow Shelly-Ann Fraser (JAM) Murielle Ahouré (CIV) Carmelita Jeter (USA)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ BTEC First Sport By Bob Harris, R. Mills, S. Parker-Bennet
  2. ^ The Day – 23 January 1983
  3. ^ http://www.athleticsweekly.com/messageboard/viewtopic.php?f=1&t=3893
  4. ^ "IAAF keeps one false-start rule". BBC. 3 August 2005. Retrieved 15 August 2008. 
  5. ^ "Gatlin queries false start change". BBC News. 6 May 2005. Retrieved 15 August 2008. 
  6. ^ Christopher Clarey (28 August 2011). "Who Can Beat Bolt in the 100? Himself". The New York Times. Retrieved 28 August 2011. 
  7. ^ "The disqualification of Usain Bolt". IAAF. 28 August 2011. Retrieved 28 August 2011. 
  8. ^ "Usain Bolt 100m 10 meter Splits and Speed Endurance". Speedendurance.com. 22 August 2008. Retrieved 7 August 2012. 
  9. ^ Sandre-Tom. "IAAF Competition Rules 2009, Rule 164". IAAF. Archived from the original on 3 September 2009. Retrieved 23 August 2009. 
  10. ^ 100 metres IAAF
  11. ^ Will Swanton and David Sygall, (2007-07-15). Holy Grails. Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved on 2009-06-18. Archived 2009-06-20.
  12. ^ The above source fails to mention that Namibian Frankie Fredericks was the first runner of non-West African descent to break the barrier.
  13. ^ Athlete Profiles - Patrick Johnson. Athletics Australia. Retrieved 2009-06-19. Archived 2009-06-20.
  14. ^ Jad, Adrian (July 2011). "Christophe Lemaitre 100m 9.92s +2.0 (Video) - Officially the Fastest White Man in History". adriansprints.com. Retrieved 2011-07-31. 
  15. ^ "Błąd w odczycie wyniku Justina Gatlina" (in polish). www.sport.wp.pl. 2006-05-18. Retrieved 2006-05-18. 
  16. ^ "9"98 pour Lemaitre", Le Figaro, 07-09-2010
  17. ^ a b Entine, Jon (8 December 2012). "The DNA Olympics -- Jamaicans Win Sprinting 'Genetic Lottery' -- and Why We Should All Care". Forbes. Retrieved 19 July 2013. 
  18. ^ a b Barling, Kurt (2000-09-04). Runaway success in the sports arena is never simply a question of race. The Independent. Retrieved on 2009-06-18.
  19. ^ [1], IAAF, 12-08-2013
  20. ^ [2], IAAF, 11-08-2013
  21. ^ a b Demirel, Evin (8 August 2012). "What Made Arkansas’ Record-Setting 2012 Track Team So Unique". The Sports Seer. Retrieved 19 July 2013. 
  22. ^ Who Do You Think You Are - Colin Jackson. BBC Sport. Retrieved on 2009-06-18.
  23. ^ Press, Associated. "Progression of 100 meters world record". ESPN. Retrieved 28 June 2011. 
  24. ^ "100 Metres Results". IAAF. 16 August 2009. Retrieved 31 May 2011. 
  25. ^ 100 Metres All Time. IAAF (9 March 2009). Retrieved 6 May 2009. Archived 8 May 2009.
  26. ^ 100 metres records. IAAF (6 September 2011). Retrieved 9 June 2011. Archived 6 September 2011.
  27. ^ 60 Metres Records. IAAF (4 April 2009). Retrieved 4 April 2009.
  28. ^ "Top List – 100m". IAAF. Retrieved 31 May 2011. 
  29. ^ Zinser, Lynn (30 June 2008), "Shattering Limits on the Track, and in the Pool" The New York Times
  30. ^ Pritchard, W. G. (July 2006). "Mathematical Models of Running". Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics. Retrieved 1 October 2012. 
  31. ^ Linthorne, Nick (March 2003). "Wind Assistance". Brunel University. Archived from the original on 3 September 2009. Retrieved 25 August 2008. 
  32. ^ http://www.iaaf.org/statistics/toplists/inout=o/age=n/season=0/sex=W/all=y/legal=A/disc=100/detail.html
  33. ^ "Top List – 100m". IAAF. Retrieved 3 April 2014. 
  34. ^ Bromell Blazing! World Leading 9.77w (4.2) To Win Big 12 Championship
  35. ^ "IPC Athletics World Records – Men's 100 m". International Paralympic Committee. Retrieved 14 December 2013. 
  36. ^ "IPC Athletics World Records – Women's 100 m". International Paralympic Committee. Retrieved 14 December 2013. 
  37. ^ Canadian Ben Johnson won the 1988 men's 100 metres final, but was stripped of the title after testing positive for steroids in a subsequent doping test.
  38. ^ "1988: Johnson stripped of Olympic gold". BBC News. September 27, 1988. 
  39. ^ On October 5, 2007 Marion Jones of the United States admitted to having taken performance enhancing drugs prior to the 2000 Summer Olympics. On October 9 she relenquished her medals to the United States Olympic Committee, who returned them to the International Olympic Committee. The IOC have removed the medals from Jones and her relay teammates, leaving the positions vacant.

External links[edit]