suffix -stan ( Persian: ـستان -stān) is Persian for "place of" or "country". [1 ] [2 ]
The suffix also appears in the names of many regions, especially in
Central and South Asia, but also in the Caucasus and Russia; areas where significant amounts of Persian culture were spread or adopted. The suffix is also used more generally, as in Persian and Urdu rigestân ( ریگستان) "place of sand, desert", Pakistan "land of the pure" and golestan ( گلستان) "place of flowers, garden", Hindi devasthan ("place of devas, temple"), etc.
The suffix, originally an independent noun, but evolving into a suffix by virtue of appearing frequently as the last part in
nominal compounds, is of Indo-Iranian and ultimately Indo-European origin: It is cognate with Sanskrit sthā́na ( Devanagari: स्थान) – pronounced – meaning "the act of standing", from which many further meanings derive, including "place, location", and ultimately descends from [st̪ʰaːna] Proto-Indo-Iranian *sthāna-.
Proto-Indo-European root from which this noun is derived is *steh₂- (older reconstruction *stā-) "to stand" (or "to stand up, to step (somewhere), to position (oneself)"), which is also the source of English to stand, Latin stāre, and Greek histamai (ίσταμαι), all meaning "to stand", as well as Pashto تون ( tun, "habitat" or "homeland") and Russian стан ( stan, meaning "settlement" or "semi-permanent camp"). In Polish, stan means "state" or "condition", while in Serbo-Croatian it translates as "apartment" in its modern usage, while its original meaning was "habitat". In Czech and Slovak, it means "tent" or, in military terms, "headquarters". Also in Germanic languages, the root can be found in Stand ("place, location"), and in Stadt ( German), stad/ sted ( Dutch/ Scandinavian), stêd ( West Frisian) and stead ( English), all meaning either "place" or "city". The suffix -stan is analogous to the suffix , present in many country and location names. -land Countries [edit ]
Country Capital Area km² Population Pop. den. /km² Afghanistan Kabul (3,476,000) 652,230 31,108,077 43.5 Kazakhstan Astana (780,880) 2,724,900 17,053,000 6.3 Kyrgyzstan Bishkek (874,400) 199,900 5,551,900 27.8 Pakistan Islamabad (805,235) 796,095 182,490,721 226.6 Tajikistan Dushanbe (679,400) 143,100 8,000,000 55.9 Turkmenistan Ashgabat (1,031,992) 488,100 5,125,693 10.5 Uzbekistan Tashkent (2,309,600) 447,400 30,183,400 67.5 Native names [edit ] Sub-national units [edit ] Iran [edit ] Pakistan [edit ] Russia [edit ] Others [edit ] Cities and counties [edit ] Iran [edit ] Others [edit ] Regions [edit ] Arabistan – the name of the Arabian Peninsula and other meanings Arbayistan – a Sassanid Persian satrapy in Late Antiquity Asorestan – the province of Babylonia under the Sassanid Empire Azadistan – a short-lived state in the Iranian province of Azarbaijan under Mohammad Khiabani Balawaristan – an historical name of Gilgit-Baltistan (Pakistan) that has regained some prevalence in recent years Balochistan/Baluchistan – a region in Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan Baloristan – a region of Northern Areas of Pakistan Baltistan – a northern region in Pakistan Bantustan – an Apartheid-era South African black 'homeland' (the term coined by analogy) Cholistan Desert – a desert region in Pakistan Dardistan – a region in northern Pakistan East Pakistan – the historic name for pre-independence Bangladesh East Turkestan or Uyghurstan – a region dominated by the Turkic-speaking Uyghur people, located in northwest China Frangistan – a term used (by Muslims and Persians in particular) during the Middle Ages and later historical periods to refer to Western or Christian Europe Hazarastan – the Hazarajat, homeland of the Hazara people in central Afghanistan Hindustan – land of the Indus River. Today it refers to the Republic of India. Iryston – native name of Ossetia. An ethnolinguistic region located on both sides of the Greater Caucasus Mountains, largely inhabited by the Ossetians. Kabulistan – a historical regional name referring to the territory centered around present-day Kabul Province of Afghanistan Kafiristan (land of the infidels) – historic region in Afghanistan until 1896, now known as Nuristan. A similarly-named region exists in north Pakistan. Kohistan – several regions of this name exist Kurdistan – Kurdish region Lazistan – Persian name of "Lazica", an ancient Georgian monarchy in western Georgia. Lezgistan – ethnolinguistic region in southern Dagestan and northern Azerbaijan Moghulistan (Mughalistan) – a historical geographic unit in Central Asia that included parts of modern-day Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Xinjiang North Waziristan – northern part of Waziristan region in Pakistan Pashtunistan – the area of Afghanistan and North-Western Pakistan historically inhabited by the Pashtun tribes Quhistan – a region of medieval Persia, essentially the southern part of Greater Khorasan Registan – historic site in Samarkand, meaning "place of sand" Russian Turkestan – Turkestan in the Russian Empire, later Turkestan Autonomous SSR Sakastan or Sistan – region of Afghanistan and Pakistan where Scythians or Sakas resided in the 2nd century BCE Saraikistan – a proposed region in southern Punjab province of Pakistan South Waziristan – southern part of Waziristan region in Pakistan Tabaristan – a historical region along the southern coasts of the Caspian Sea Talyshistan – ethnolinguistic region in the SE Caucasus and NW Iran Tokharistan, Tocharistan or Tukharistan, also known as Balkh or Bactria – the ancient name of a historical region in Central Asia, located between the range of the Hindu Kush and the Amu Darya (Oxus) Turkestan or Turkistan – ethnolinguistic region of Turkic peoples and languages, encompassing Central Asia, northwest China, parts of the Caucasus and Asia Minor Waziristan – a region of northwest Pakistan Zabulistan – a historical region in the border area of today's Iran and Afghanistan, around the city Zabol Proposed names [edit ] Fictional [edit ] Adjikistan – a fictional central Asian country in the videogame . SOCOM U.S. Navy SEALs: Combined Assault Aldastan – a fictional central Asian country consisting of Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, from . Command & Conquer: Generals Avgatiganistan – a pun of 'Afghanistan', it means ' Fried eggs' ('Avga tiganista') in Greek. Fictional country by author Eugene Trivizas. Azadistan – a fictional kingdom from the anime Mobile Suit Gundam 00, It means "free land". Bazrakhistan – a fictional former Soviet republic in the movie Act of War (1998) starring Jack Scalia. Belgistan – fictional Middle Eastern country in the anime . Gasaraki Berzerkistan – a fictional republic run by genocidal terrorist godhead and President for Life Trff Bmzklfrpz, in the comic strip . Doonesbury Derkaderkastan – fictional Middle Eastern country in . Team America: World Police Franistan – fictional country referred to in the television show . I Love Lucy Helmajistan – fictional area from the anime . Full Metal Panic! Howduyustan ("how do you stand?") – fictional country from comic book stories. Uncle Scrooge Iranistan – an oriental region of Hyborea ( ). Conan the Barbarian stories Istan – a fictional island state in the online role-playing game, . Guild Wars Nightfall Kamistan (Islamic Republic of) – a fictional Middle Eastern country featured in the television series . 24 Kazinistan – an ideal state imagined by John Rawls in The Law of Peoples, in which there is a system of law, legal representation for all groups, and a respect for basic human rights, but not full democracy. Kehjistan – the state of the eastern jungles in the game . Diablo II Kerakhistan – a fictional Middle Eastern country featured in the tabletop miniature wargame . Battlefield Evolution Kreplachistan – fictional country in the movie . Austin Powers: International Man of Mystery Paristan or Pari-estan – a in the folklore of fairyland Middle East, South Asia and Central Asia. Pokolistan – a fictional country in DC Comics. Richistan – a fictional country in the book Richistan: A Journey Through the American Wealth Boom and the Lives of the New Rich by Robert Frank. Serdaristan – fictional country in . Battlefield: Bad Company Takistan – a fictional country in . ARMA 2: Operation Arrowhead Tazbekistan – a fictional central Asian nation in the BBC television series . Ambassadors Trashcanistan – a fictional country mentioned by the hosts of " MXC". Turaqistan – fictional country in the movie " War, Inc.". Tyrgyzstan – fictional country in the BBC television drama . The State Within Zekistan – a fictional central Asian nation in the video game . Full Spectrum Warrior Other [edit ] Absurdistan – sometimes used to satirically describe a country where everything goes wrong Bimaristan – a kind of hospital in medieval Persia and the medieval Islamic world Bradistan – a moniker for Bradford, England, owing to its large population of Pakistani worker migrants Dondestan – an album by Robert Wyatt. Sounds like ¿Dónde están? (Where are they?) in Spanish. Filmistan – a film-production company Gazimestan – name of a monument commemorating the historical Battle of Kosovo Hamastan – a concept of a Palestinian Islamic government with Sharia as law Iranistan – a pseudo-orientalist mansion built for P. T. Barnum in 1848 in Connecticut Islamistan – means 'Land of Islam', used in various contexts Jewistan – a pejorative moniker evoking the term " Bantustan", proposed by Professor Francis Boyle as a replacement name for the state of Israel. [3 ] [4 ] [5 ] Londonistan – French counter-terrorism agents gave the British/English capital of London this sobriquet. Sometimes used derogatorily to refer to the large immigrant population in the city of London. Muristan – a complex of streets and shops in the Christian Quarter of the Old City of Jerusalem New Yorkistan – the title of the cover art for the December 10, 2001 edition of magazine The New Yorker Paganistan – the pagan/neo-pagan community of Minneapolis-Saint Paul in Minnesota [6 ] Registan – a UNESCO World Heritage Site in central Samarkand, Uzbekistan Sarvestan – a Sassanid-era palace in the Iranian province of Sarvestan, Iran Shabestan – an underground space, usually found in traditional architecture of mosques, houses, and schools in ancient Persia Shahrestan (several meanings) Skateistan – a skateboarding/educational organization based in Kabul, Afghanistan References [edit ] ^ Johnson, Bridget. ". 'Stan Countries – What the Suffix 'Stan' Means" About.com. Archived from the original on 2013-03-30 . Retrieved October 9, 2012. ^ Harper, Douglas. "-stan". Online Etymology Dictionary. Archived from the original on 2014-01-01 . Retrieved January 18, 2013. ^ a b Jewistan: Finally Recognizing Israel as the Jewish State, Abstract, Connections@Illinois (University of Illinois) ^ a b Jewistan: Finally Recognizing Israel as the Jewish State by Francis A Boyle, , October 21, 2010. Atlantic Free Press ^ a b Francis Boyle, , Clarity Press, 2011. Chapter 3.5 "The State of the Jews—Jewistan!" and The Palestinian Right of Return under International Law The Palestinian Right of Return Under International Law at Google Books. ^ Pizza, Murphy (2009). "Schism as midwife: how conflict aided the birth of a contemporary Pagan community". In Lewis, James R.; Lewis, Sarah M. Sacred schisms: how religions divide. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 249–261. ISBN 978-0-511-58071-0 . Retrieved May 25, 2011. "[...] the Pagan community of the Minnesota Twin Cities, otherwise known by members as 'Paganistan.' 'Paganistan' is the nickname, and now proud moniker of self-identification, of the uniquely innovative, eclectic, and feisty Neopagan community of the Twin Cities Metro area of Minnesota." External links [edit ]
Look up in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. -stan