The suffix -stan (Persian: ـستان -stān) is Persian for "place of", ultimately from Indo-Iranian -sthāna, cf. Indo-Aryan -sthāna (sanskrit : स्थान ) (pronounced [st̪ʰaːna]) suffix with a similar meaning. In Indo-Aryan languages, sthāna means "place", and is cognate to the Latin terms state and status (meaning "to stand").
The suffix also appears in the names of many regions, especially in Central and South Asia, areas where ancient Indo-Iranian peoples were established; in Iranian, however, it is also used more generally, as in Persian and Urdu rigestân (ریگستان) "place of sand, desert", Pakistan "land of the pure" and golestan (گلستان) "place of roses, rose garden", Hindi devasthan ("place of devas, temple"), etc. The suffix is of Indo-Iranian and ultimately Indo-European origin, with the Proto-Indo-European root being *stā- "stand", which is also the source of English stand, Latin stāre, and Greek histamai (ίσταμαι), all meaning "stand", as well as Pashto تون (tun, "habitat" or "homeland") and Russian стан (stan, meaning "settlement" or "semi-permanent camp"). In Bosnian/Croatian/Serbian, stan means "apartment" in its modern usage, while its original meaning is "habitat". Also in Germanic languages, the root can be found in Stand ("place, location"), and in Stadt (German), stad/sted (Dutch/Scandinavian), stêd (West Frisian) and stead (English), all meaning "city". The suffix -stan is analogous to the suffix -land, present in many country and location names.
- Bashkortostan, Russia
- Tatarstan, Russia
- Dagestan, Russia
- Karakalpakstan, Uzbekistan
- Balochistan, Pakistan
- Gilgit–Baltistan, Pakistan
- Gobustan Rayon, Azerbaijan
- Golestan Province, Iran
- Khuzestan Province, Iran
- Lorestan Province, Iran
- Nurestan Province, Afghanistan
- Rajasthan, India
- Sistan and Baluchestan Province, Iran
- Balochistan – region in Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan.
- Baltistan – a northern region in Pakistan.
- Bantustan – Apartheid-era South African black 'homelands'; the term is coined by an analogy
- Cholistan Desert – a desert region in Pakistan
- Dardistan – a region in northern Pakistan
- Dashtestan – a region in Bushehr Province, Iran
- East Pakistan, refers to the historic name for pre-independence Bangladesh
- Hazarastan – the Hazarajat, homeland of the Hazara people in central Afghanistan
- Hindustan – land of Hindus. Today it refers to the Republic of India.
- Kafiristan ("land of the infidels"), historic region in Afghanistan until 1896, now known as Nuristan. A similarly named region exists in north Pakistan.
- Kohistan – several regions of this name
- Kurdistan – Kurdish region
- Larestan – a region in Bushehr Province, Iran – its center is Lar.
- Lezgistan – ethnolinguistic region in southern Dagestan and northern Azerbaijan
- Mehrestan – a county in Sistan and Baluchestan Province in Iran. The capital is Zaboli.
- Moghulistan (Mughalistan) – a historical geographic unit in Central Asia that included parts of modern-day Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Xinjiang
- North Waziristan – northern part of Waziristan region in Pakistan
- Pashtunistan - The area of Afghanistan and North-Western Pakistan historically inhabited by the Pashtun tribes.
- Registan – historic site in Samarkand, meaning "place of sand"
- Russian Turkestan – Turkestan in the Russian Empire, later Turkestan Autonomous SSR
- Sakastan – region of Afghanistan and Pakistan where Scythians or Sakas resided in the 2nd century BCE.
- Saraikistan – A proposed region in southern Punjab province of Pakistan
- Sistan – historical region of Iran and Afghanistan
- South Waziristan southern part of Waziristan region in Pakistan
- Tabaristan – a historical region along the southern coasts of Caspian Sea
- Talyshistan – ethnolinguistic region in the SE Caucasus and NW Iran
- Tangestan – a region in Bushehr Province, Iran
- Tocharistan, Tukharistan or Tokharistan, also known as Balkh or Bactria – the ancient name of a historical region in Central Asia, located between the range of the Hindu Kush and the Amu Darya (Oxus)
- Turkestan or Turkistan – ethnolinguistic region of Turkic peoples and languages, encompassing Central Asia, northwest China, parts of the Caucasus and Asia Minor
- Uyghurstan/East Turkestan – Region dominated by the Turkic-speaking Uyghur people, located in northwest China
- Waziristan – a region of northwest Pakistan
- Zabulistan – a historical region in the border area of today's Iran and Afghanistan, around the city Zabol
- Adjikistan – a fictional central Asian country in the videogame SOCOM U.S. Navy SEALs: Combined Assault.
- Aldastan – a fictional central Asian country consisting of Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, from Command & Conquer: Generals.
- Avgatiganistan – a pun of 'Afghanistan', it means 'Fried eggs' ('Avga tiganista') in Greek. Fictional country by author Eugene Trivizas.
- Bazrakhistan – a fictional former Soviet republic in the movie Act of War (1998) starring Jack Scalia.
- Belgistan – fictional Middle Eastern country in the anime Gasaraki.
- Berzerkistan – a fictional republic run by genocidal terrorist godhead and President for Life Trff Bmzklfrpz, in the comic strip Doonesbury.
- Derkaderkastan – fictional Middle Eastern country in Team America: World Police.
- Firangistan or Firanja - name, derived from the Frankish people, for an Islamified Europe in the alternate history novel The Years of Rice and Salt.
- Franistan – fictional country referred to in the television show I Love Lucy.
- Helmajistan – fictional area from the anime Full Metal Panic!.
- Howduyustan ("how do you stand?") – fictional country from Uncle Scrooge comic book stories.
- Iranistan – an oriental region of Hyborea (Conan the Barbarian stories).
- Istan – a fictional island state in the online role-playing game, Guild Wars Nightfall.
- Kamistan (Islamic Republic of) – a fictional Middle Eastern country featured in the television series 24.
- Kazinistan – an ideal state imagined by John Rawls in The Law of Peoples, in which there is a system of law, legal representation for all groups, and a respect for basic human rights, but not full democracy.
- Kehjistan – the state of the eastern jungles in the game Diablo II.
- Kerakhistan – a fictional Middle Eastern country featured in the tabletop miniature wargame Battlefield Evolution.
- Kreplachistan – fictional country in the movie Austin Powers: International Man of Mystery.
- Paristan or Pari-estan, a fairyland in the folklore of Middle East, South Asia and Central Asia.
- Pokolistan is a fictional country in DC Comics.
- Richistan - a fictional country in the book Richistan: A Journey Through the American Wealth Boom and the Lives of the New Rich by Robert Frank.
- Serdaristan – fictional country in Battlefield: Bad Company.
- Takistan – a fictional country in ARMA 2: Operation Arrowhead.
- Trashcanistan - a fictional country mentioned by the hosts of "MXC".
- Turaqistan – fictional country in the movie "War, Inc.".
- Tyrgyzstan – fictional country in the BBC television drama The State Within.
- Zekistan – a fictional central Asian nation in the video game Full Spectrum Warrior.
- Absurdistan – sometimes used to satirically describe a country where everything goes wrong.
- Bimaristan, a kind of hospital in medieval Persia and the medieval Islamic world.
- Dondestan, an album by Robert Wyatt. Sounds like ¿Dónde están? (Where are they?) in Spanish.
- Hamastan, a concept of a Palestinian Islamic government with Sharia as law.
- Islamistan, means 'Land of Islam', used in various contexts.
- Londonistan – the British/English capital of London was given this sobriquet by French counter-terrorism agents.
- Muristan, a complex of streets and shops in the Christian Quarter of the Old City of Jerusalem.
- Paganistan: the pagan/neo-pagan community of Minneapolis-Saint Paul in Minnesota
- Qabristan, a cemetery or graveyard. Qabr means grave.
- Registan, a UNESCO World Heritage Site in central Samarkand, Uzbekistan.
- Shahrestan (several meanings)
- Skateistan, a skateboarding/educational organization based in Kabul, Afghanistan.